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Table 4 Factors associated with metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients

From: Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

Variable MetS= Yes, n (%) COR (95% CI) P-value AOR (95% CI) P-value
Gender Men 44 (37.9) 1.00   1.00  
women 72 (62.1) 1.6 (0.97–2.74) 0.06 1.7 (0.66–4.4) 0.27
Residence: Rural 20 (17.2) 1.00   1.00  
Urban 96 (82.8) 2.3 (1.2–4.2) 0.007 1.3 (0.54–3.1) 0.54
Age in years: ≤30 2 (1.7) 1.00   1.00  
31–45 31 (26.7) 5.7 (1.16–27.8) 0.03 5.8 (0.54–3.1) 0.08
46–60 41 (35.3) 4.8 (1.0–22.9) 0.05 4.5 (0.62–32.8) 0.14
≥61 42 (36.2) 6.8 (1.4–32.7) 0.02 8.2 (1.1–62.4) 0.04
Marital status: Single 5 (4.3) 1.00   1.00  
Married 106 (91.4) 2.5 (1.1–74) 0.03 7.2 (1.4–35.9) 0.02
Divorced/widowed 5 (4.3) 13 (1.2–140.7) 0.02 16.4 (1.1–244.2) 0.04
Occupation: Farmer 11 (9.5) 1.00   1.00  
Employed 36 (31.0) 2.2 (0.93–5.26) 0.07 0.86 (0.24–3.07) 0.81
Housewife 49 (42.2) 3.36 (1.4–7.9) 0.006 2.1 (0.56–7.93) 0.27
Retirement pension 11 (9.5) 4.1 (1.25–13.5) 0.02 5.3 (1.1–25.9) 0.04
Merchants 9 (7.8) 1.27 (0.42–3.8) 0.67 1.0 (0.22–4.76) 0.97
Monthly income: No income/dependent 8 (6.9) 1.00   1.00  
<1000 birr 50 (43.1) 2.6 (1.1–61) 0.02 2.2 (0.74–6.55) 0.15
1001–2000 birr 31 (26.7) 6.0 (2.3–15.8) <0.0001 3.6 (1.1–12.5) 0.04
>2001 birr 27 (23.3) 4.2 (1.6–10.8) 0.003 5.8 (1.5–22.3) 0.01
BMI, Kg/m2: Normal (18.5–24.9) 30 (25.9) 1.00   1.00  
Underweight (<18.5) 4 (3.4) 0.57 (0.15–2.19) 0.42 0.89 (0.17–4.5) 0.89
Overweight (25–29.9) 49 (42.2) 3.5 (1.9–6.4) <0.0001 2.8 (1.4–5.9) 0.005
Obese (≥30) 33 (28.4) 9.5 (3.9–22.9) <0.0001 10.7 (3.8–29.8) <0.0001
Duration since the diagnosis of HTN <5 years 73 (62.1) 1.00   1.00  
6–10 years 21 (18.1) 0.73 (0.38–1.38) 0.33 0.61 (0.27–1.38) 0.24
>11 years 22 (19.0) 2.5 (1.1–57) 0.02 2.0 (0.75–5.5) 0.16
Doing exercises regularly: Yes 25 (21.6) 1.00   1.00  
No 91 (78.4) 1.7 (0.95–3.0) 0.07 1.9 (0.89–4.3) 0.09
FHCD No 84 (72.4) 1.00   1.00  
Diabetes 12 (10.3) 2.5 (0.89–6.8) 0.08 1.4 (0.36–5.4) 0.62
Hypertension 20 (17.2) 2.1 (0.95–4.4) 0.06 2.3 (0.9–5.9) 0.08
Intensity of Physical activity: Low 52 (44.8) 057 (0.26–1.22) 0.15 0.61 (0.22–1.74) 0.36
Moderate 43 (37.1) 0.61 (0.27–1.35) 0.22 0.5 (0.18–1.4) 0.19
High 21 (18.1) 1.00   1.00  
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, BMI body mass index, COR crude odds ratio, CI Confidence Interval, DM diabetes, FHCD familial history of chronic diseases, HTN hypertension; income in Ethiopian birr (1ETH birr = 0.044USD)