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Table 1 Background characteristics of hypertensive patients

From: Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

Variables   Total = 238 (%) MetS p-value
Yes = 116 (%) No = 122 (%)
Age, years: Mean (±SD) 53.2 (14.5) 55.4 (13.7) 51 (14.9) 0.02
  ≤30 13 (5.5) 2 (1.72) 11 (9.1) 0.06
31–45 61 (25.6) 31 (26.7) 30 (24.6)
46–60 88 (37.0) 41 (35.3) 47 (38.5)
≥61 76 (31.9) 42 (36.2) 34 (27.9)
Residence: Rural 62 (26.1) 20 (17.2) 42 (34.4) 0.003
Urban 176 (73.9) 96 (82.8) 80 (65.6)
Marital status: Single 18 (7.6) 5 (4.3) 13 (10.7) 0.048
Married 214 (89.9) 106 (91.4) 108 (88.5)
Divorced/widow 6 (2.5) 5 (4.3) 1 (0.8)
Occupation Farmer 34 (14.3) 11 (9.5) 23 (18.9)  
Employed 75 (31.5) 36 (31.0) 39 (32.0)  
Housewife 84 (35.3) 49 (42.2) 35 (28.7)  
Merchant 26 (10.9) 9 (7.8) 17 (13.9) 0.05
Retirement (pension) 19 (8.0) 11 (9.5) 8 (6.6)  
Educational status: Illiterate 58 (24.4) 25 (21.6) 33 (27.0)  
Primary 87 (36.6) 42 (36.2) 45 (36.9)  
Secondary 42 (17.6) 21 (18.1) 21 (17.2)  
Tertiary 51 (21.4) 28 (24.1) 23 (18.9) 0.67
Income rate: in Ethiopian birr No income 37 (15.5) 8 (6.9) 29 (23.8)  
≤1000 birr 107 (45.0) 50 (43.1) 57 (46.7)  
1001–2000 birr 47 (19.7) 31 (26.7) 16 (13.1) <0.0001
≥2001 birr 47 (19.7) 27 (23.3) 20 (16.4)  
Work type: Light work 141 (59.2) 66 (56.9) 75 (61.5) 0.43
Office work 69 (29.0) 38 (32.8) 31 (25.4)  
Vigorous workc 28 (11.8) 12 (10.3) 16 (13.1)  
Mode of transportation Walking/bicycle 185 (77.7) 93 (80.2) 92 (75.4)  
Motorized vehicles 53 (22.3) 23 (19.8) 30 (24.6) 0.37
Intensity of physical activity: Low 113 (47.5) 52 (44.8) 61 (50.0)  
Moderate 90 (37.8) 43 (37.1) 47 (38.5)  
High 35 (14.7) 21 (18.1) 14 (11.5) 0.34
Doing exercises regularlyb Yes 64 (26.9) 25 (21.6) 39 (32.0)  
No 174 (73.4) 91 (78.4) 83 (68.0) 0.07
Ever drink alcohol: Yes 3 (1.3) 2 (1.7) 1 (0.8)  
No 235 (98.7) 114 (98.3) 121 (99.2) 0.61 a
  1. SD, standard deviation; asignificance by fisher’s exact test; income in Ethiopian birr (1ETH birr = 0.044 USD);bpatients who consistently perform any type physical exercise for a minimum of 30 min at least three times a week; cpatients who are working more energetic jobs like working in the factories, farm or daily laborers