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Table 1 Summary of included studies in the narrative review

From: Understanding heart failure; explaining telehealth – a hermeneutic systematic review

General background One textbook [53] plus background sections from other included papers
Heart failure as a clinical condition Above plus 9 narrative reviews [5, 7, 33, 52, 55, 65, 73, 76, 83], 4 cohort studies [72, 82, 84,85,86], 1 national audit [80], guidance from professional societies [74, 75, 81, 117,118,119]
Heart failure as a lived experience 8 systematic reviews of qualitative or mixed-method studies [45, 90,91,92,93,94,95, 97], 5 additional qualitative studies [98,99,100,101,102], one theoretical paper [96], 1 commentary [104]
Self-management of heart failure 4 systematic reviews [18, 24, 44, 45], 2 realist reviews [46, 47], 2 additional qualitative studies [105, 106]
Technologies for remote monitoring of heart failure 3 narrative reviews [64, 65, 68], plus background sections from other included papers
Trials of telehealth in heart failure 7 meta-reviews (systematic reviews of systematic reviews) [6, 34,35,36,37,38,39], 20 systematic reviews of trials (16 with meta-analysis [14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29] and 4 without [30,31,32,33]), 6 M-trials [8,9,10,11,12,13], plus additional narrative reviews and commentaries, especially [33, 64, 65, 68, 70, 120, 121]
Economic analyses 5 systematic reviews of economic evaluations [21, 40,41,42,43] of which one included meta-analysis [41]
Implementation studies of telehealth in heart failure 3 systematic reviews [32, 48, 49], 2 narrative reviews [50, 51], 7 qualitative case studies (in 11 publications) of real-world implementation, including staff and patient experience [58, 60, 61, 87, 89, 101, 110, 111, 113, 114, 122], 3 national/international audits [62, 63, 123], 1 co-design study prior to RCT [112], 1 action research study of real-world implementation [60, 114], plus discussion sections from other included papers especially [5, 7]