Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient characteristics and treatment

From: Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study

  Overall
(N = 7641)
High TG
(n = 1591)
Low HDL-C
(n = 1691)
High TG and low HDL-C
(n = 759)
Age (year) 63.2 (9.0) 61.5 (8.4) 62.0 (8.8) 60.8 (8.5)
Sex
 Male (n, %) 3696 (48.4) 903 (56.8) 623 (36.8) 330 (43.5)
 Female (n, %) 3945 (51.6) 688 (43.2) 1068 (63.2) 429 (56.5)
Race
 White/Caucasian (n, %) 6675 (95.6) 1408 (94.9) 1515 (94.3) 681 (94.7)
 Middle East/North African (n, %) 74 (1.1) 15 (1.01) 23 (1.4) 9 (1.3)
 South Asian (n, %) 63 (0.9) 16 (1.01) 21 (1.3) 6 (0.8)
 Other Asian countries (n, %) 34 (0.5) 10 (0.7) 8 (0.5) 2 (0.3)
 South American origin (n, %) 22 (0.3) 6 (0.4) 8 (0.5) 4 (0.6)
 Sub-Saharan (n, %) 15 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
 Caribbean (n, %) 14 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
 Other (n, %) 82 (1.2) 26 (1.8) 28 (1.7) 15 (2.1)
 Current smoker (n, %) 1608 (21.0) 393 (24.7) 397 (23.5) 201 (26.5)
 BMI (kg/m2) 28.9 (5.5) 30.6 (5.4) 30.9 (5.8) 31.3 (5.4)
  ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n, %) 2788 (37.0) 783 (49.6) 858 (50.7) 410 (54.0)
 T2DMa (n, %) 2046 (26.8) 562 (35.3) 617 (36.5) 305 (40.2)
Blood pressure
 Hypertensionb (n, %) 5559 (72.8) 1193 (75.2) 1278 (75.6) 564 (74.3)
 SBP (mmHg) 135.1 (16.6) 136.9 (16.7) 135.5 (17.1) 136.0 (17.0)
 DBP (mmHg) 80.9 (9.9) 82.3 (10.1) 81.7 (10.0) 82.5 (9.9)
Serum lipid levels
 TC (mmol/l) 5.5 (1.1) 5.9 (1.2) 5.2 (1.2) 5.7 (1.2)
 LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.2 (1.0) 3.3 (1.1) 3.1 (1.0) 3.2 (1.0)
 Non-HDL-C (mmol/l) 4.0 (1.1) 4.7 (1.2) 4.2 (1.2) 4.7 (1.2)
 TG (mmol/l) 1.8 (1.3) 3.4 (1.9) 2.6 (2.0) 3.8 (2.5)
 HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.4 (0.4) 1.2 (0.3) 1.0 (0.2) 1.0 (0.2)
 CRP (mg/l) 4.2 (8.7) 4.4 (6.3) 6.0 (12.2) 5.0 (7.5)
LLT
 At least one LLT (n, %) 3278 (42.9) 757 (47.6) 749 (44.3) 349 (46.0)
 Statin alone (n, %) 2862 (37.5) 598 (37.6) 617 (36.5) 258 (34.0)
 Statin + other LLT (n, %) 178 (2.3) 74 (4.7) 57 (3.4) 43 (5.7)
 Other LLT alone (n, %) 238 (3.1) 85 (5.3) 75 (4.4) 48 (6.3)
 Ezetimibe (n, %) 151 (2.0) 57 (3.6) 45 (2.7) 35 (4.6)
 Fibrate (n, %) 220 (2.9) 84 (5.3) 68 (4.0) 45 (5.9)
 Nicotinic acid (n, %) 6 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 3 (0.4)
Alcohol consumptionc
 (units/week) 5.7 (11.3) 6.4 (12.2) 3.2 (6.4) 3.6 (6.8)
 > 14 units/week
 (male; n, %)
529 (17.8) 129 (18.0) 47 (9.6) 27 (10.3)
 > 7 units/week
 (female; n, %)
272 (8.9) 49 (9.4) 43 (5.5) 22 (6.9)
Physical exercise
 No exercise (n, %) 1489 (19.8) 368 (23.5) 406 (24.3) 191 (25.5)
 Only light physical activity per week (n, %) 3782 (50.2) 807 (51.5) 910 (54.6) 403 (53.8)
 Heavy physical activity 1–2 times per week (n, %) 1232 (16.4) 220 (14.1) 203 (12.2) 90 (12.0)
 Heavy physical activity ≥3 times per week (n, %) 1026 (13.6) 171 (10.9) 149 (8.9) 65 (8.7)
  1. Data are mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise indicated
  2. High TG: ≥ 2.3 mmol/l. Low HDL-C: < 1.0 mmol/l in men and <1.3 mmol/l in women
  3. aConsidered present if the diagnosis was documented in the medical records
  4. bSBP ≥ 140 mmHg, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or receiving antihypertensive medication
  5. cModerate alcohol consumption of 14 units/week (male) and 7 units/week (female) is outlined in the 2016 ESC/EAS guidelines for management of dyslipidemias [3]
  6. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LLT lipid-lowering therapy, SBP systolic blood pressure, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride