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Table 1 The characteristics of the studies included in the analysis

From: The association between periodontal disease and the risk of myocardial infarction: a pooled analysis of observational studies

Cohort studies
Author, year Country Study design Sample size (M/F) Population Years enrolled (Follow-up) Age (years) Exposure OR/RR (95% CI) P value Adjusting factors
Joshipura KJ et al., 1996 [21] USA Prospective cohort study 44119 male 757 cases 1986-1992 (6) 40-75 PD 1.04 0.86-1.25 NS Age, BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol, family history of MI, vitamin E
Howell TH et al., 2001 [22] USA Prospective cohort study 2653 male 797 cases 1982-1995 (12.3) 40-84 PD 1.01 0.82-1.24 NS Age, aspirin, β-carotene treatment, smoking, alcohol, HT, BMI, DM, physical activity, family history of MI
Dorn JM et al., 2010 [23] USA Prospective cohort study 884 (668/216) 154 cases 1996-2004 (2.9) 54.5 ± 8.4 CAL 1.48 0.95-2.31 NS Age, gender, education, DM, EF, HT, physical activity, cholesterol, lipid-lowering medication, BMI, fruit/vegetable intake, CK-MB
Yu YH et al., 2015 [16] USA Prospective cohort study 39863 female 642 MI 1992-1995 (15.7) 48.7-60.3 PD 1.39 1.17-1.64 <0.001 Age
Cross-sectional studies
Author, year Country Sample size (M/F) Population Years enrolled Age (years) Exposure OR/RR (95% CI) P value Adjusting factors
Bazile A et al.,2002 [18] USA 80 (48/32) 50 CHD (20 MI)/30 control 2002 23-83 (median 54) CAL 1.23 0.29-5.23 0.775 Age, gender
Buhlin K et al., 2002 [19] Sweden 1577 1577 (27 MI) 1998 41-84 Deep pockets 1.32 0.51–3.38 0.57 NS
Holmlund A et al., 2006 [17] Sweden 4254 (1866/ 2388) 3352 case/902 control 1976-2000 53 ± 14 Periodontal Bone Loss 2.69 1.12-6.46 0.03 Age, gender, smoking
Senba T et al., 2008 [31] Japan 6,816 M (MI = 25) 2004 NS PD 2.34 1.05-5.23 NS Age
Senba T et al., 2008 [31] Japan 23,088 F (MI = 16) 2004 NS PD 1.76 0.64-4.88 NS Age
Sujal M. Parkar et al., 2013 [20] India 60 (42/18) 30 AMI/30 Control 2013 54.3 ± 11.0 (case); 53.1 ± 10.5 (control) Community periodontal index 0.224 0.03-1.68 0.15 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol, BMI
Case–control studies
Author, year Country Sample size (M/F) Population Years enrolled Age (years) Exposure OR/RR (95% CI) P value Adjusting factors
Persson GR et al., 2003 [6] Sweden 160 (138/22) 80AMI/80control 2003 63.4 ± 8.9 (case) 61.9 ± 9.1 (control) CAL 14.1 5.8-34.4 <0.0001 Smoking
Cueto A et al., 2005 [7] Spain 149 (89/60) 72AMI/77control 2002 62.5 ± 9.9 (case) 58.5 ± 10.2 (control) CAL 3.31 1.42–7.71 0.005 Sex, age, smoking, HT, DM, exercise, cholesterol
Andriankaja OM et al., 2006 [8] USA 1337 (765/572) 537MI/800control 1997-2001 54.6 ± 8.5 (case) 55.0 ± 0.0 (control) CAL 2.77 1.95-3.94 <0.001 Age, gender, HT, DM, cholesterol, smoking
Andriankaja OM et al., 2007 [9] USA 782 M 415AMI/367control 1997-2001 54.5 ± 8.5 (case) 56.5 ± 10.2 (control) CAL 1.34 1.15–1.57 <0.001 Age, BMI, HT, physical activity, cholesterol, DM, smoking
Andriankaja OM et al., 2007 [9] USA 593 F 120AMI/473Control 1997-2001 55.5 ± 8.7 (case) 54.1 ± 9.8 (control) CAL 2.08 1.47–2.94 <0.001 Age, BMI, physical activity, HT, cholesterol, DM, smoking
Renvert S et al., 2010 [10] Sweden 324 (287/370) 165ACS/159control 2002-2007 31-87 PD 10.3 6.1-17.4 NS NS
Holmlund A et al., 2011 [11] Sweden 200 (160/40) 100AMI/100control 2011 57.1 ± 5.5 (case) 57.9 ± 5.2 (control) Pockets depth 4.61 1.52-13.94 0.0069 Age, gender, CRP, HT, smoking, IL6, cholesterol, HDL-c, DM, TG, BMI, education,
Khosravi Samani M et al., 2013 [12] Iran 123 60AMI/63control 2013 54.97 ± 9.68 (case) 55.89 ± 11.9 (control) CAL 8.79 2.36-32.66 0.001 Age, DM
Li P et al., 2013 [13] China 155 (113/42) 103AMI/52control 2013 68 (41-84) (case) 62 (42-78)(control) CAL 4.89 1.26-18.94 0.02 HT, total cholesterol HDL, BMI, LDL
Willershausen I et al., 2014 [24] Germany 497 (380/117) 248AMI/249control 2007-2011 62.3 (51-83) PD 0.879 0.527-1.466 0.622 Gender, age, smoking
Kodovazenitis G, et al., 2014 [14] Greece 306 (218/88) 204MI/102 control 2007-2009 64.7 ± 12.9 (case) 64.2 ± 10.1 (control) CAL 2.27 1.22-4.35 0.01 Age, gender, HT, total cholesterol, smoking
Rydén L et al., 2016 [15] Sweden 1610 (1308/302) 805MI/805control 2010-2014 62.5 ± 8 PD 1.28 1.03-1.60 NS DM, smoking, education, marital status
  1. BMI body mass index, CAL clinical attachment loss, CI confidence interval, CK-MB, creatine phosphokinase-myocardial band, CRP C-response protein, DM diabetes mellitus, EF ejection fraction, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HT hypertension, MI myocardial infarction, NS not specified, OR odd ratio, PD periodontal disease, RR relative risk, TG triglycerides
  2. If the studies specified the PD exposure parameters, the detailed PD parameters would be displayed in this table. Otherwise, the PD would be considered as exposure factor