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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the CARLA study population (2002–2006): distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases

From: Short-term blood pressure variability – variation between arm side, body position and successive measurements: a population-based cohort study

  Women Men
  N Median Min; Q1; Q3; Max N Median Min; Q1; Q3; Max
Age (years) 812 63.3 45.8; 54.9; 71.8; 83.4 967 64.9 45.4; 55.8; 74.0; 83.3
SBP (mmHg) 812 138.0 89.0; 125.5; 155.0; 231.0 966 145.5 93.0; 131.5; 158.5; 227.0
DBP (mmHg) 812 82.5 54.0; 76.0; 90.0; 122.0 966 85.5 52.5; 78.5; 93.0; 127.0
Heart rate (1/min) 778 67.0 39.4; 60.9; 73.4; 105.4 893 65.7 43.9; 60.2; 74.7; 112.4
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 807 5.7 1.4; 5.0; 6.4; 10.7 960 5.3 2.1; 4.9;5.9; 17.8
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 807 1.5 0.4; 1.3; 1.8; 3.4 960 1.2 0.3; 1.0;1.5; 3.0
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 801 3.4 0.9; 2.8; 4.0; 7.3 940 3.1 0.9; 2.6;3.7; 7.2
Cholesterol/HDL ratio 807 3.8 1.7; 3.0; 4.5; 9.7 960 4.3 1.7; 3.5; 5.2; 13.0
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 807 1.4 0.2; 1.0; 1.9; 11.6 960 1.7 0.4; 1.2;2.5; 38.2
Glucose (mmol/l) 807 5.4 3.1; 5.1; 5.9; 19.8 960 5.6 3.0; 5.2;6.3; 21.5
HbA1c (%) 807 5.6 3.1; 5.3;5.9; 12.0 960 5.6 2.8; 5.3;6.0; 11.7
Body mass index (kg/m2) 812 28.0 18.1; 24.7; 31.5; 53.7 967 27.7 16.5; 25.4;30.8; 43.3
Waist hip ratio 812 0.9 0.7; 0.8; 0.9; 1.2 967 1.0 0.8; 1.0; 1.0; 1.2
For current smokers: pack-years 119 19.5 0.2; 10.6; 26.6; 61.0 225 29.0 0.5; 18.0; 38.4; 85.1
Alcohol consumption gram/day 812 0 0; 0; 5.0; 60.5 964 12.5 0; 2.5; 26.2; 113.6
  N Proportion 95% CI N Proportion 95% CI
Smoking 812    966   
Current 119 14.7 12.2–17.1 225 23.3 20.6–26.0
Past 140 17.2 14.6–19.8 496 51.3 48.2–54.5
Never 553 68.1 64.9–71.3 245 25.4 22.6–28.1
Sports: physically active 347 42.8 39.4–46.2 296 30.6 27.7–33.6
Education yearsa 812    967   
≤10 121 14.9 12.4–17.4 36 3.7 2.5–4.9
11–13 388 47.8 44.3–51.2 391 40.4 37.3–43.5
14–17 231 28.4 25.3–31.6 335 34.6 31.6–37.6
≥18 72 8.9 6.9–10.8 205 21.2 18.6–23.8
Drug use
Beta-blockers 279 34.4 31.1–37.6 307 31.7 28.8–34.7
Anti-arrhythmics 5 0.6 0.1–1.2 8 0.8 0.3–1.4
ACE-inhibitors 254 31.3 28.1–34.5 340 35.2 32.1–38.2
Diuretics 80 9.9 7.8–11.9 104 10.8 8.8–12.7
Ca-channel blockers 123 15.1 12.7–17.6 148 15.3 13.0–17.6
Disease prevalence
Myocardial infarction 20 2.4 0.8–3.7 50 5.2 2.7–7.6
Stroke 27 3.3 2.1–4.6 42 4.3 3.1–5.6
Cardiovascular diseaseb 48 5.9 4.3–7.5 153 15.8 13.5–18.1
Hypertensionc 611 75.2 72.3–78.2 794 82.1 79.7–84.5
Diabetes mellitusd 120 14.8 12.3–17.2 154 15.9 13.6–18.3
  1. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, Ca-channel blockers calcium-channel blockers
  2. aEducation (years of training) according to ISCED classification 1997
  3. bCVD: including prevalent myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), stroke, carotid surgery
  4. cHypertension defined as SBP equal or above 140 and/or DBP equal or above 90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication
  5. dDiabetes defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus and/or use of anti-diabetic medication