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Table 2 Univariate analysis of predictors of mortality stratified by gender

From: Rheumatic heart disease in Uganda: predictors of morbidity and mortality one year after presentation

  Female Male
  HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Age (Ref: ≤15 years)
 16–30 year 1.47 (0.40–5.33) 0.561 0.53 (0.22–1.26) 0.153
 31–49 years 0.96 (0.26–3.63) 0.957 0.57 (0.23–1.41) 0.226
 >50 year 2.21 (0.59–8.32) 0.242 0.36 (0.047–2.86) 0.339
Education level (Ref: no education)
 Primary 1.26 (0.42–3.73) 0.682 1.60 (0.21–12.04) 0.650
 Secondary 0.77 (0.22–2.62) 0.672 1.56 (0.20–12.00) 0.671
 Post secondary 0.23 (0.03–2.04) 0.187 0.44 (0.03–7.04) 0.562
Occupation (Ref: unemployed)
 Student 0.60 (0.24–1.50) 0.274 1.09 (0.45–2.63) 0.845
 Small business 0.41 (0.14–1.14) 0.086 0.32 (0.086–1.23) 0.099
 Civil servant 0.21 (0.06–0.75) 0.016 0.504 (0.17–1.45) 0.206
Penicillin adherence (Ref: ≥80%)
 <80% adherence 3.82 (1.55–9.38) 0.003 7.34 (2.56–21.11) 0.001
NYHA at baseline (Ref: NYHA 1)
 Class 2 0.50 (0.17–1.50) 0.218 0.47 (0.17–1.29) 0.147
 Class 3 0.97 (0.38–2.48) 0.947 0.62 (0.25–1.52) 0.305
 Class 4 8.56 (2.48–29.52) 0.001 1.42 (0.32–6.18) 0.640
Mitral regurgitation (Ref: Mild MR)
 Moderate 2.86 (0.36–22.88) 0.322 0.43 (0.12–1.62) 0.215
 Severe 8.38 (1.12–62.43) 0.038 1.47 (0.51–4.305) 0.740
Mitral stenosis (Ref: Mild MS)
 Moderate 0.51 (0.13–2.02) 0.334 0.37 (0.09–1.50) 0.165
 Severe 0.41 (0.09–1.84) 0.244 0.28 (0.062–1.25) 0.097
Aortic regurgitation (Ref: Mild AR)
 Moderate 1.88 (0.60–5.92) 0.282 0.79 (0.25–2.509) 0.697
 Severe 1.98 (0.38–10.20) 0.415 0.84 (0.25–2.87) 0.781
LVIDd >55 mm 1.90 (0.57–6.29) 0.290 1.95 (0.87–4.38) 0.105
LVIDs >45 mm 2.02 (0.48–8.49) 0.340 2.02 (0.77–5.28) 0.152
Ejection fraction >40% 0.50 (0.24–1.04) 0.060 0.60 (0.29–1.23) 0.167
Fractional shortening >20% 3.61 (1.09–11.93) 0.035 1.62 (0.49–5.36) 0.420
Pericardial effusion 0.26 (0.10–0.64) 0.004 0.82 (0.25–2.71) 0.750
Heart failure 12.32 (3.73–40.70) 0.001 11.07 (2.62–46.67) 0.001
Atrial fibrillation 1.87 (0.87–4.03)   2.06 (0.98–4.34) 0.056
Infective endocarditis 4.19 (1.45–12.08) 0.008 2.40 (0.73–7.93) 0.150
Acute rheumatic fever 1.09 (0.38–3.13) 0.870 1.42 (0.58–3.48) 0.440
Antistreptolysin O titers >240 1.14 (0.39–3.26) 0.810 1.54 (0.63–3.77) 0.340
C reactive protein >5 mg/L 2.78 (1.31–5.87) 0.007 1.78 (0.87–3.66) 0.110
  1. Bolded results represent p < 0.05. Abbreviations as in Table 1