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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of case participants with incident cardiovascular disease and of controls in the PREDIMED

From: Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: a nested case-control study in the PREDIMED (PREvention with MEDiterranean Diet) study

Characteristic Case participants Control participants p value
n 147 271
Age 69.2 (6.4) 68.6 (6.1) Matching Factor
Female sex (%) 40.3 40.5 Matching Factor
PREDIMED trial arm (%)    0.03
 Mediterranean diet + EVOO 37.4 37.6  
 Mediterranean diet + nuts 24.5 35.1  
Smoking status (%)    0.39
 Current smoker 19.7 15.1  
 Former smoker 34.0 32.8  
Hypercholesterolaemia (%) 57.1 65.3 0.10
Hypertension (%) 80.3 77.5 0.51
Type 2 diabetes (%) 61.2 49.1 0.02
Family history of CHD (%) 19.7 15.5 0.27
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.7 (3.6) 29.7 (3.5) 0.94
Physical activity (METs-min/d) 250.2 (211.1) 279.0 (272.5) 0.27
Alcohol (g/d) 10.1 (16.8) 12.7 (17.9) 0.15
Toenail mercury (μg/g) 0.63 (0.53) 0.67 (0.49) 0.42
Dietary intake
 Fish and seafood (g/d) 92.4 (46.0) 93.5 (44.1) 0.80
 n-3 Fatty acids (EPA & DHA) (g/d) 0.71 (0.46) 0.75 (0.44) 0.34
 n-3 Fatty acids (other) 1.41 (0.65) 1.44 (0.65) 0.72
 Total energy intake (kcal/d) 2340 (645) 2363 (599) 0.71
 Total Fat (%E) 39.5 (6.5) 39.7 (6.6) 0.70
  Monounsaturated Fat (%E) 19.6 (4.4) 20.0 (4.6) 0.47
  Polyunsaturated Fat (%E) 6.2 (2.2) 6.2 (1.8) 0.92
  Saturated Fat (%E) 10.4 (2.3) 10.1 (2.2) 0.29
 Protein (%E) 16.2 (2.9) 15.8 (2.7) 0.16
 Cholesterol (mg/d) 363.0 (122.2) 366.5 (130.9) 0.78
 Fiber (g/d) 24.9 (10.3) 25.1 (7.9) 0.78
Mediterranean diet adherence (0–14) 8.2 (2.0) 8.8 (1.8) 0.001
Fish item in Mediterranean screener (%) 52.1 51.7 0.94
  1. Means (standard deviations) unless otherwise stated
  2. EVOO extra-virgin olive oil, CHD coronary heart disease, METs metabolic equivalents, EPA eicosapentanoic acid, DHA docosahexanoic acid, %E percent of total energy intake, OR odds ratio, CI confidence Interval, Hg mercury