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Table 4 Predictors of mortality to all causes of heart failure

From: Patients with HFpEF and HFrEF have different clinical characteristics but similar prognosis: a retrospective cohort study

Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variables   Hazard ratio (95%CI) Hazard ratio (95%CI) P value
Gender Male 0.984 (0.521–1.857) 1.132 (0.463–2.766) 0.785
Age, Years Age, years 1.046 (1.025–1.068) 1.045 (1.016–1.076) 0.002
NYHA Class Class IV 1.549 (0.719–3.337) 1.267 (0.527–3.046) 0.597
Anemia Yes 1.483 (0.818–2.689) 0.708 (0.333–1.504) 0.369
Sodium, mEq/L   0.933 (0.896–0.972) 0.913 (0.851–0.980) 0.011
Creatinine, mg/dl   2.602 (2.052–3.300) 1.966 (1.369–2.824) <0.001
AF Yes 0.486 (0.225–1.051) 0.617 (0.171–2.224) 0.461
VHD Yes 0.636 (0.342–1.185) 1.420 (0.413–4.886) 0.578
IHD Yes 2.355 (1.182–4.691) 2.211 (0.397–12.331) 0.365
DCMP Yes 0.898 (0.352–2.290) 1.068 (0.240–4.743) 0.931
HHD Yes 1.036 (0.481–2.229) 1.272 (0.338–4.794) 0.722
LVEF   0.997 (0.975–1.020) 0.992 (0.958–1.027) 0.634
Diuritics Yes 0.877 (0.269–2.858) 0.690 (0.180–2.650) 0.589
Spironolactone Yes 0.388 (0.214–0.703) 0.343 (0.158–0.743) 0.007
ACEI Yes 0.952 (0.510–1.778) 0.258 (0.098–0.680) 0.006
Beta Blocker Yes 1.205 (0.659–2.204) 1.713 (0.766–3.832) 0.190
Digoxin Yes 0.313 (0.132–0.746) 0.407 (0.095–1.736) 0.224
Antiplatelates Yes 0.883 (0.435–1.793) 1.383 (0.352–5.436) 0.643
Anticoagulants Yes 1.700 (0.817–3.541) 2.429 (0.845–6.978) 0.099
Statin Yes 1.520 (0.768–3.010) 0.189 (0.037–0.972) 0.046
CCB Yes 1.555 (0.720–3.359) 0.815 (0.287–2.317) 0.701
  1. ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, AF atrial fibrillation, CCB calcium channel blocker, DCMP dilated cardiomyopathy, HHD hypertensive heart disease, IHD ischemic heart disease, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, VHD valvular heart disease
  2. Factors included in multivariate Cox model include: Gender, Age, NYHA Class, presence of comorbidities such as anemia and AF, Common etiologies of HF such as VHD, IHD,HHD, and DCMP, Use of medications such as Diuretics, Spironolactone, ACEI, Beta Blocker, Digoxin, Antiplatelates, Anticoagulants, Statin and CCB, and laboratory values such as sodium and creatinine