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Table 2 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of baPWV

From: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and metabolic syndrome in general population: the APAC study

Variables baPWV < 1400cm/s (n = 1965) baPWV ≥ 1400cm/s (n = 3216) P value
Age (year) 48.14 ± 6.39 59.45 ± 12.28 <0.0001
Male, n 944 (48.04) 2164 (67.29) <0.0001
Education, n (%)
 Illiteracy/Primary School 97 (4.94) 541 (16.82) <0.0001
 Middle School 856 (43.56) 1439 (44.75)
 High School or Higher 1012 (51.50) 1236 (38.43)
Income, n (%)
 < ¥1000 530 (26.97) 709 (22.05) <0.0001
 ¥1000–3000 1278 (65.04) 2153 (66.95)
 > ¥3000 157 (7.99) 354 (11.01)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 24.05 ± 3.09 25.12 ± 3.34 <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 83.36 ± 9.55 87.80 ± 9.33 <0.0001
Waist-to hip ratio 0.86 ± 0.06 0.89 ± 0.06 <0.0001
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 118.78 ± 14.16 138.99 ± 19.22 <0.0001
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 79.11 ± 9.62 85.15 ± 11.25 <0.0001
Fasting Plasma Glucose (mmol/L) 5.24 ± 0.96 5.80 ± 1.73 <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.42 ± 0.64 1.60 ± 0.73 <0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.50 ± 1.25 1.78 ± 1.50 <0.0001
High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.67 ± 0.47 1.60 ± 0.44 <0.0001
Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.54 ± 0.66 2.68 ± 0.78 <0.0001
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein 1.51 ± 2.83 2.51 ± 4.79 <0.0001
Hypertension, n (%) 427 (21.73) 2073 (64.46) <0.0001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 94 (4.78) 535 (16.64) <0.0001
Smoking, n (%)
 Never 1334 (67.89) 1899 (59.05) <0.0001
 Former 59 (3.00) 232 (7.21)
 Current 572 (29.11) 1085 (33.74)
Alcohol abuse, n (%)
 Never 1401 (71.30) 1993 (61.97) <0.0001
 Former 18 (0.92) 63 (1.96)
 Current 546 (27.79) 1160 (36.07)
Physical Activity, n (%)
 Inactive 877 (44.63) 1210 (37.62) <0.0001
 Moderately Active 561 (28.55) 751 (23.35)
 Very Active 527 (26.82) 1255 (39.02)
Metabolic Syndrome, n (%) 261 (13.28) 1010 (31.41) <0.0001
Metabolic Syndrome Components
 Central Obesity, n (%) 907 (46.16) 1838 (57.15) <0.0001
 Raised Triglycerides, n (%) 523 (26.62) 1152 (35.82) <0.0001
 Reduced High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, n (%) 169 (8.60) 419 (13.03) <0.0001
 Raised Blood Pressure, n (%) 378 (19.24) 1820 (56.59) <0.0001
 Raised Fasting Plasma Glucose, n (%) 455 (23.16) 1267 (39.40) <0.0001
Metabolic Syndrome (No. of Components)
 0, n (%) 608 (30.94) 394 (12.25) <0.0001
 1, n (%) 644 (32.77) 751 (23.35)
 2, n (%) 427 (21.73) 959 (29.82)
 3, n (%) 216 (10.99) 681 (21.18)
 4, n (%) 64 (3.26) 371 (11.54)
 5, n (%) 6 (0.31) 60 (1.87)
  1. baPWV brachial ankle pulse wave velocity