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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients with versus without subclinical atherosclerosis

From: Impact of carotid atherosclerosis detection on physician and patient behavior in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective, observational, multicenter study

   Atherosclerosis Findings via Carotid IMT
Total (N = 797) Negative (N = 455) Positive (N = 342) *P-value
Age (years) 60.0 ± 9.5 57.9 ± 9.2 63.5 ± 9.0 <0.001
Sex (percent male) 395 (49.6) 227 (49.9) 175 (51.2) 0.721
BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 ± 3.1 25.3 ± 3.4 24.9 ± 3.0 0.067
Waist circumference (cm) 87.2 ± 8.2 87.6 ± 8.6 86.7 ± 7.6 0.164
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 125.3 ± 14.5 124.5 ± 14.7 126.5 ± 14.2 0.060
 Diastolic 75.3 ± 10.1 75.7 ± 9.6 74.7 ± 10.6 0.170
DM duration (years) 8.1 ± 7.1 7.4 ± 6.7 9.0 ± 7.6 0.002
Medication use [N (%)]
 Antihypertensive drug 345 (43.3) 174 (38.2) 171 (50.0) 0.001
 Statin 337 (42.3) 195 (42.9) 142 (41.5) 0.705
 Antiplatelet agent 328 (41.2) 170 (37.4) 158 (46.2) 0.012
Current smoker (%) 153 (19.2) 81 (17.9) 72 (21.1) 0.253
Glucose (mmol/L) 8.1 ± 2.8 8.0 ± 2.7 8.2 ± 3.0 0.591
HbA1C (mmol/mol) 60 ± 18.6 60 ± 17.5 61 ± 19.7 0.417
Log hs-CRP (mg/L) −1.2 ± 1.8 −1.4 ± 1.7 −1.0 ± 1.8 0.017
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.4 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.0 0.710
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.0 0.884
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.6 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.8 0.284
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4 0.594
UKPDS risk engine score 16.8 ± 12.1 13.3 ± 8.7 20.4 ± 13.6 <0.001
UKPDS risk engine (%) (N = 622)
 High 66 (10.6) 15 (4.3) 51 (18.8)  
 Intermediate 213 (34.2) 101 (28.8) 112 (41.3) <0.001
 Low 343 (55.2) 235 (67.0) 108 (39.9)  
Framingham risk score 7.7 ± 6.4 6.2 ± 5.7 9.20 ± 7.1 <0.001
Framingham risk engine (%) (N = 648)
 High 28 (4.3) 6 (1.6) 22 (7.8)  
 Intermediate 195 (30.1) 88 (24.0) 107 (38.1) <0.001
 Low 425 (65.6) 273 (74.4) 152 (54.1)  
  1. IMT intima medial thickness, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, CRP C-reactive protein, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, UKPDS United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study
  2. *P-value: comparison of clinical data between patients who were negative versus positive for carotid atherosclerosis according to carotid IMT