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Table 2 Conventional echocardiographic parameters

From: Silent diabetic cardiomyopathy in everyday practice: a clinical and echocardiographic study

  Control
(N = 80)
Group I(DM)
(N = 70)
Group II (DM+HTA)
(N = 70)
Group III (DM+CAD)
(N = 70)
p
Left ventricular and left atrial geometry and mass
 LV EDD (cm) 5.03 ± 0.42 5.07 ± 0.44 5.14 ± 0.47 5.15 ± 0.56 0.386
 LV ESD (cm) 3.43 ± 0.31 3.53 ± 0.43 3.64 ± 0.43 3.67 ± 0.48 <0.001
 LVM (g) 101.76 ± 11.41* 119.23 ± 20.01 122.80 ± 20.18 119.50 ± 20.01 <0.001
 LVM index (g/m2) 52.91 ± 4.29* 60.70 ± 8.71 60.85 ± 10.28 60.65 ± 12.37 <0.001
 LV RWT 0.40 ± 0.04* 0.43 ± 0.04 0.43 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.03 <0.001
 LV concentric remodeling, n (%) 24 (30)* 40 (57) 31 (44) 40 (57) 0.002
 LAV (ml) 23.34 ± 3.75* 30.53 ± 5.86 33.17 ± 7.15 32.18 ± 10.45 <0.001
 Left atrial volume index (ml/m2) 12.22 ± 2.24* 15.61 ± 3.32 16.47 ± 3.77 16.31 ± 5.70 <0.001
Left ventricular systolic function
 LV ejection fraction (%) 61.68 ± 5.49* 56.30 ± 5.64§ 53.43 ± 5.73 53.87 ± 7.11 <0.001
 LV fraction of shortening (%) 32.53 ± 3.75* 29.61 ± 3.37§Δ 27.40 ± 3.21 27.71 ± 4.05 <0.001
 MAPSE (mm) 16.43 ± 1.56* 14.93 ± 2.20§Δ 13.83 ± 1.60 13.82 ± 1.65 <0.001
Left ventricular diastolic function
 E/A ratio 1.30 ± 0.25* 1.10 ± 0.32§ 0.95 ± 0.25 1.05 ± 0.31 <0.001
 E deceleration time (msec) 161.99 ± 21.80* 196.83 ± 38.93§ 206.73 ± 38.86 203.59 ± 34.64 <0.001
 IsoVolumic Relaxation Time (msec) 84.35 ± 29.25* 89.74 ± 12.90§ 96.06 ± 9.67 94.07 ± 13.04 <0.001
 Eprim (m/s) 0.1015 ± 0.03* 0.0794 ± 0.03 0.0701 ± 0.03 0.0711 ± 0.04 <0.001
 E/Eprim 7.40 ± 1.42* 10.11 ± 3.27 10.22 ± 3.18 10.36 ± 2.98 <0.001
 S/D ratio 1.37 ± 0.16#¤Δ 1.34 ± 0.21 1.24 ± 0.29 1.23 ± 0.27 <0.001
 Vp (m/s) 0.75 ± 0.16* 0.56 ± 0.13 0.52 ± 0.09 0.52 ± 0.13 <0.001
Systolic and diastolic LV function
 Myocardial Performance Index 0.40 ± 0.05* 0.47 ± 0.07§ 0.51 ± 0.08 0.50 ± 0.08 <0.001
  1. LV left ventricle, LV EDD LV end diastolic diameter, LV ESD LV end systolic diameter, LVM LV mass, LVM index LV mass index, LV RWT LV relative wall thickness, LAV left atrial volume, LAVI left atrial volume index, MAPSE mitral annular plane systolic excursion, Eearly mitral inflow wave, A late mitral inflow wave, Eprim early diastolic mitral annular velocity by tissue Doppler imaging, S pulmonary venous flow systolic velocity, D pulmonary venous flow diastolic velocity, Vp mitral flow propagation velocity
  2. *p < 0.05 control vs DM; #p < 0.05 control vs DM+HTA; ¤p < 0.05 control vs DM+CAD
  3. §p < 0.05 DM vs DM+HTA
  4. Δp < 0.05 DM vs DM+CAD