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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants (n = 300)

From: Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding protein-7: potential novel biomarkers for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Variable Controls (n = 55) LVDD (n = 168) HFpEF (n = 77) p-value
Demographics and vital signs
 Age (years) 54 [48–61] 66 [58–71] 73 [68–77] < 0.001
 Male 52.7 % 56.2 % 40.3 % 0.138
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 [24.1-29.1] 27.8 [25.6- 32.3] 27.5 [25.7- 32.0] 0.008
 Waist circumference (cm) 98 [86–107] 102 [94–114] 102 [98–111] 0.004
 Hip circumference (cm) 98 [94–103] 103 [96–111] 105 [98–114] 0.002
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 125 [110–136] 134 [127–140] 136 [130–140] < 0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80 [70–80] 80 [76–84] 80 [72–84] 0.013*
 Heart rate (bpm) 70 [68–76] 72 [69–76] 70 [65–76] 0.195
Medical history
 Hypertension 69 % 88 % 96 % < 0.001
 T2DM 12.7 % 42.6 % 53.2 % < 0.001
 CAD 38.2 % 58.6 % 63.6 % 0.023
 CABG 1.8 % 3.0 % 11.7 % 0.001
 PCI 5.5 % 16.1 % 13.2 % 0.155
 Myocardial infarction 14.5 % 21.3 % 22.1 % 0.572
Medications
 Beta-blocker 50.9 % 60.9 % 74.0 % 0.041
 ACE inhibitor 47.3 % 65.1 % 54.5 % < 0.001
 ARB 10.9 % 10.1 % 29.9 % 0.044
 Diuretics 14.5 % 26.6 % 46.8 % < 0.001
 Aspirin 52.7 % 75 % 76.6 % 0.007
 Calcium blockers 10.9 % 13.6 % 27.3 % 0.024
Biomarkers
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.8 [0.7-0.9] 0.9 [0.7-0.9] 0.90 [0.75- 1.10] 0.060
 Hba1c (%) 5.7 [5.4-5.9] 6.0 [5.7- 6.6] 6.1 [5.7-6.7] < 0.001
 sST2 (ng/ml) 13.50 [9.2-20.6] 16.20 [12.35- 21.65] 16.9 [12.2- 25.9] 0.007
 NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 90.10 [45.8-129.2] 86.85 [43.7-173.4] 343.6 [151.7-703.4] < 0.001
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) and %
  2. ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker; BMI body mass index; BP blood pressure; CAD coronary artery disease; CABG coronary artery bypass graft; Hba1c hemoglobin A1c; HFpEF heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; LVDD asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; sST2 soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2; T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-parametric tests for group differences between categories were performed. We used the Kruskal-Wallis to test the equality of medians among more than two distinct groups. The Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyze differences between the medians of two groups and the χ2 test to evaluate differences in proportions in more than 2 sets of categorical variables