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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to Galectin 3 plasma concentration above or below median (median = 16.90 ng/mL). Linear variables presented: median (25–75 % percentiles)

From: Galectin 3: association to neurohumoral activity, echocardiographic parameters and renal function in outpatients with heart failure

Variable Below median Galectin 3 (n = 64) Above median Galectin 3 (n = 68) P-value
Age, years 68 (62–73) 73 (68–78) 0.010
Female sex, % 21.9 30.9 0.241
BMI, kg/m2 26 (24–29) 27 (23–31) 0.191
NYHA class III-IV, % 15.6 44.1 <0.001
Systolic BP, mmHg 130 (113–143) 122 (110–137) 0.225
Diastolic BP, mmHg 77 (70–84) 73 (68–81) 0.174
Heart rate, beats/min 67 (59–75) 68 (60–78) 0.292
HF duration, months 7.5 (6–12) 12 (6–24) 0.257
Medical history:
 Pervious MI, % 46.9 32.4 0.088
 Hypertension, % 57.8 64.7 0.405
 Atrial fibrillation, % 35.9 32.4 0.664
 ICD, % 10.9 13.4 0.663
 Diabetes, % 18.8 26.5 0.290
 Apoplexia Cerebri/ TCI, % 12.5 22.1 0.148
Medication:
 ACE-I, % 64.1 72.1 0.333
 ARB, % 31.7 22.1 0.211
 Beta-blocker, % 85.9 85.3 0.916
 MRA, % 12.5 26.9 0.039
Blood sample analysis:
 Hemoglobin, mmol/L 8.9 (8.3–9.4) 8.2 (7.6–8.8) 0.004
 Creatinine, umol/L 76.0 (66.0–84.0) 98.0 (81.0–130.5) 0.001
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 81.0 (70.0–88.0) 55.0 (40.5–70.0) <0.001
 Galectin 3, ng/mL 13.90 (12.43–14.49) 21.85 (18.65–27.58) <0.001
 NTproBNP, pg/mL 920.15 (393.75–1712.30) 1931.15 (736.20–4059.25) <0.001
 ProANP, pmol/L 726.89 (470.29–1099.33) 1205 (658.80–1627.44) 0.006
 Troponin I, % above median 32,8 38,2 0.519
 hsCRP, mg/L 1.64 (0.87–3.30) 3.64 (1.61–8.21) 0.001
 Chromogranin A, pmol/L 79.0 (49.0–116.0) 106.5 (72.0–240.0) 0.001
 Copeptin, pmol/L 7.89 (5.07–12.62) 10.88 (7.03–32.85) <0.001
 Urine Sample analysis:    
 Albuminuria, mg/24 h 11.0 (9.0–23.5) 14.0 (8.0–29.5) 0.213
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, NYHA New York Heart Association, BP Blood pressure, HF Heart failure, MI Myocardial infarction, ICD Implantable cardiac defibrillator, TCI Transitory cerebral ischemia, ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Aldosterone receptor blocker, MRA Mineralocarticoide receptor antagonist, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, NTproBNP N-terminal-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide, proANP Pro-atrial-natriuretic-peptide, hsCRP high sensitive C-reactive protein