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Table 5 Exposures, outcomes, and results of observational studies

From: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and heart failure in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies

Study Exposure of interest Control group Number of events or cases Total number of analyzed patients Adjusted estimates (95 % CI) Adjusted covariate
Studies reporting heart failure
 Kannan 2015 [17] GPL-1 agonists (combined with metformine) Sulfonylureas (combined with metformine) 528a 13,185 (55,110 person years)a HR 1.10 (0.99 to 1.22) Age, sex, race, BMI, number of encounters, median household income, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebral vascular event, presence of neuropathy, retinopathy, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, atrial fibrillation, anti-hypertensive medications, lipid lowering agents, anti-platelet agents and propensity for being on metformin and sulfonylureas at baseline, lipid profile, estimated glomerular filtration rate
 Paul 2015 [18] Exenatide/exenatide + insulin Insulin 2338 39,225 Exenatide vs insulin: HR 0.34 (0.22, 0.52)
Exenatide + insulin vs insulin: HR 0.40 (0.32, 0.50)
Without previous CVD:
 Exenatide vs insulin: HR 0.34 (0.22, 0.52)
 Exenatide + insulin vs insulin: HR 0.40 (0.32, 0.50)
Without previous CVD & renal diseases:
 Exenatide vs insulin: HR 0.32 (0.21, 0.50)
 Exenatide + insulin vs insulin: HR 0.35 (0.28, 0.45)
Gender, ethnicity, age at the start of cohort, BMI, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure on the index date, history of cardiovascular disease, any renal disease prior to index date or during follow-up, use of metformin, sulfonylurea, cardioprotective medications or antihypertensive medications, and the duration of diabetes
 NCT01060059 2013 [66] Exenatide Basal insulin 2 882 NR NR
Studies reporting hospitalization for heart failure
 Yu 2015 [19] GLP-1 agonists (exenatide and liraglutide, alone or incombination with other antidiabetic drugs) Other oral antidiabetic drugs 1,118a 18,744a OR 0.67 (0.32 to 1.42) Sex, BMI, excessive alcohol use, smoking status, HbA1c level, comorbidities (neuropathy, renal disease, retinopathy, atrial fibrillation, cancer [other than nonmelanoma skin cancer], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, peripheral arteriopathy, previous coronary revascularization, peripheral vascular disease, and previous stroke), number of prescriptions, number of physician visits, and use of the following drugs in the year prior to cohort entry: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, fibrates, statins, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  1. aThese two studies accessed incretin agents and the risk of heart failure, and the data of events/cases and total number of analyzed patients regarding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were not reported separately, so the data above were the data of total study patients
  2. CI confidence interval, NR not reported, HR hazard ratio, OR odds ratio, CVD cardiovascular disease, BMI body mass index