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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants by ABI categories

From: Peripheral artery disease and exertional leg symptoms in diabetes patients in Ghana

  PAD Normal Stiff Artery p
  (ABI < 0.9) (ABI = 0.9-1.3) (ABI > 1.3)  
n (%) 213 (26.7) 536 (67.3) 48 (6)  
Age, yrs 54.1 ± 10.9 54.4 ± 10.4 56.2 ± 10.5 0.441
Gender (M/F) 87/126 262/274 20/28 0.111
Diabetes, n (%) 148 (18.6) 295 (37) 33 (4.1) 0.001
 Duration, yrs 7.5 ± 6.8 6.7 ± 5.5 8.4 ± 9.1 0.168
Hypertension, n (%) 142 (18.1) 217 (27.7) 23 (2.9) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 28.9 ± 8.7 27.7 ± 7.7 26.6 ± 5.2 0.099
Height, cm 161 ± 12 163 ± 11 165 ± 7 0.021
Waist girth, cm 94 ± 14 94 ± 27 91 ± 15 0.651
Waist-hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.25 0.93 ± 0.08 0.748
Systolic BP, mmHg 137 ± 24 134 ± 27 136 ± 22 0.387
Diastolic BP, mmHg 82 ± 13 79 ± 13 82 ± 18 0.04
Pulse BP, mmHg 55 ± 16 55 ± 20 55 ± 16 0.874
Mean BP, mmHg 100 ± 16 98 ± 15 98 ± 13 0.182
Heart rate, bpm 82 ± 14 79 ± 13 82 ± 18 0.013
Smoking, n (%)     
 Current 8 ( 1) 29 (3.6) 0 0.727
 Former 38 (4.8) 99 (12.4) 8 (1) 0.941
 Never 167(21) 408(51.2) 40(5) 0.196
Second-hand smoking 37 (4.6) 77 (9.4) 6 (0.8) 0.176
Alcohol, n (%) 45 (6.1) 157 (21.4) 6 (0.8) 0.108
Leg symptoms     0.147
 No exertional pain 168 (20.6) 450 (55.2) 37 (4.5)  
 Classic IC 26 (3.3) 51 (6.4) 5 (0.6)  
 Atypical exertional pain 7 (0.9) 9 (1.1) 1 (0.1)  
 Pain at rest 16 (2) 38 (4.7) 7 (0.8)  
  1. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; IC, intermittent claudication