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Table 1 General characteristics of study participants by diabetes status

From: Peripheral artery disease and exertional leg symptoms in diabetes patients in Ghana

  All Diabetes Non-diabetes p
  Participants Patients controls  
Age, yrs 54.6 ± 10.5 56.4 ± 10.4 51.9 ± 10.2 0.01
Gender (male), n (%) 368 (45.1) 212 (26) 156 (19.1) 0.79
 Duration of diabetes, yrs   7.1 ± 6.2   
Hypertension, n (%) 397 (48.7) 323 (39.6) 74 (9.1) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 27.9 ± 7.8 29 ± 8.7 26.3 ± 5.8 <0.001
Height, cm 163 ± 11 162 ± 13 164 ± 8 0.038
Waist girth, cm 94 ± 24 95 ± 12 93 ± 34 0.442
Waist-hip ratio 0.93 ± 0.21 0.94 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.31 0.061
Systolic BP, mmHg 135 ± 26 144 ± 24 121 ± 22 <0.001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 80 ± 13 84 ± 13 74 ± 10 <0.001
Pulse BP, mmHg 55 ± 19 60 ± 18 48 ± 18 <0.001
Mean BP, mmHg 98 ± 15 104 ± 15 90 ± 11 <0.001
Heart rate, bpm 80 ± 13 82 ± 13 76 ± 12 <0.001
Smoking, n (%)     0.034
 Current 36 (4.4) 10 (1.2) 26 (3.2)  
 Former 139 (17.1) 101 (12.4) 38 (4.7)  
 Never 630 (77.3) 364 (44.7) 266 (32.6)  
Second-hand smoking 120 (14.7) 73 (8.9) 47 (5.8) 0.078
Alcohol, n (%) 223 (27.4) 114 (14) 109 (13.4) 0.002
Educational level     0.344
 Up to Elementary school 493 (60.5) 301 (36.9) 192 (23.6)  
 Higher than elementary 322 (39.5) 185 (22.7) 137 (16.8)  
Employment     0.043
 Unemployed 319 (39.2) 206 (25.3) 113 (13.9)  
 Part-time employment 49 (6) 27 (3.3) 22 (2.7)  
 Full-time employment 447 (54.8) 255 (31.3) 192 (23.5)  
Diabetes medication, n (%)     0.012
 Oral hypoglycaemics   315 (38.7)   
 Insulin   68 (8.3)   
 Insulin & oral hypoglycaemics   102 (12.5)   
ABI (mean ± SD) 0.99 ± 0.22 0.93 ± 0.24 1.02 ± 0.17 0.115
 Low (<0.9), n (%) 218 (26.7) 152 (18.6) 66 (8.1)  
 Normal (0.9–1.3), n (%) 549 (67.4) 294 (36.1) 255 (31.3) 0.001
 High (<1.3), n (%) 48 (6) 39 (4.9) 9 (1.1)