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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of patients unexposed to statin pretreatment

From: Statin use associated with a reduced risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in patients with myocardial infarction: a nested case-control study

  Controls Cases Crude OR   Adjusteda OR  
  N (%) N (%) (95 % CI) P (95 % CI) P
Sample size 6,321 (100.0) 1,313 (100.0) -   - -
Statin Measurement
Any statin ≤ 365 d
 Non-user 2,130 (33.7) 520 (39.6) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 User 4,191 (66.3) 793 (60.4) 0.75 (0.65–0.87) <0.001 0.76 (0.64–0.90) 0.001
By recency
 Non-user 2,130 (33.7) 520 (39.6) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
  ≤ 90 d (current) 2,683 (42.4) 403 (30.7) 0.60 (0.51–0.71) <0.001 0.65 (0.54–0.79) <0.001
 91–180 d (recent) 376 (5.9) 110 (8.4) 1.16 (0.88–1.52) 0.290 1.20 (0.88–1.64) 0.240
  > 180 d (former) 1,132 (17.9) 280 (21.3) 0.97 (0.80–1.18) 0.770 0.84 (0.68–1.05) 0.130
By DDD90
Non-user 2,130 (33.7) 520 (39.6) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
  ≤ 0.5 DDD90 757 (12.0) 178 (13.6) 0.99 (0.80–1.22) 0.900 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.960
 0.5–1 DDD90 1,574 (24.9) 233 (17.7) 0.61 (0.51–0.73) <0.001 0.73 (0.59–0.89) 0.002
  > 1 DDD90 728 (11.5) 102 (7.8) 0.55 (0.43–0.69) <0.001 0.65 (0.50–0.85) 0.001
  1. ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockade, CHADS 2 congestive heart failure, hypertension, age > 75 years, diabetes, previous stroke, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DDD defined daily dose, DDD 90 average defined daily dose within 90 days, OR odds ratio, PPI proton pump inhibitor, Ref reference group, SD standard deviation
  2. a Adjusted for CHASD2 score, medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic heart failure, stroke, COPD, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, Parkinson disease, and dementia) and medication use (antineoplastic drug, PPI, ACEI/ARB, antiviral drug, immunosuppressants, immunostimulants, nitrate, antiplatelet and influenza or pneumococcal vaccine)