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Table 2 Association between statin use and the risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization

From: Statin use associated with a reduced risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in patients with myocardial infarction: a nested case-control study

  Controls Cases Crude OR   Adjusteda OR  
  N (%) N (%) (95 % CI) P (95 % CI) P
Sample size 10,726 (100.0) 2,686 (100.0) -   -  
Statin measurement
Any statin ≤ 365 d
 Non-user 3,041 (28.4) 835 (31.1) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 User 7,685 (71.6) 1,851 (68.9) 0.87 (0.78–0.95) 0.003 0.85 (0.77–0.95) 0.004
By recency
 Non-user 3,041 (28.4) 835 (31.1) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
  ≤ 90 d (current) 4,778 (44.5) 963 (35.9) 0.72 (0.64–0.80) <0.001 0.75 (0.67–0.85) <0.001
 91–180 d (recent) 697 (6.5) 229 (8.5) 1.17 (0.98–1.39) 0.080 1.06 (0.87–1.28) 0.570
 >180 d (former) 2,210 (20.6) 659 (24.5) 1.08 (0.96–1.23) 0.190 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.810
By DDD90
 Non-user 3,041 (28.4) 835 (31.1) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 ≤ 0.5 DDD90 1,278 (11.9) 388 (14.4) 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 0.510 0.98 (0.85–1.13) 0.760
 0.5-1 DDD90 2,808 (26.2) 539 (20.1) 0.66 (0.59–0.74) <0.001 0.75 (0.66–0.84) <0.001
  > 1 DDD90 1,389 (12.9) 265 (9.9) 0.66 (0.57–0.76) <0.001 0.74 (0.63–0.87) 0.002
  1. ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockade, CHADS 2 congestive heart failure, hypertension, age > 75 years, diabetes, previous stroke, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DDD defined daily dose, DDD 90 average defined daily dose within 90 days, OR odds ratio, PPI proton pump inhibitor, Ref reference group, SD standard deviation
  2. a Adjusted for CHASD2 score, medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic heart failure, stroke, COPD, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, Parkinson disease, and dementia) and medication use (antineoplastic drug, PPI, ACEI/ARB, antiviral drug, immunosuppressants, immunostimulants, nitrate, antiplatelet and influenza or pneumococcal vaccine)