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Table 3 PSM-adjusted follow-up (2 years and 3 years) healthcare utilization for hyperlipidemic patients with and without new CV events, categorized by CVD risk level

From: Clinical and economic burden associated with cardiovascular events among patients with hyperlipidemia: a retrospective cohort study

  History of CV event cohort   Modified CHD RE cohort   Moderate-risk cohort   Low-risk cohort  
Without CV events With CV events Without CV events With CV events Without CV events With CV events Without CV events With CV events
(N = 10,741) (N = 10,741) (N = 90,614) (N = 90,614) (N = 7,938) (N = 7,938) (N = 12,527) (N = 12,527)
N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea
All-cause Healthcare Utilization 2 Years Post-index Date
 Number of Continuous Enrollment Patients 5928[55.2 %] 5576[51.9 %] <0.0001 58916[65.0 %] 53212[58.7 %] <0.0001 5096[64.2 %] 4662[58.7 %] <0.0001 8844[70.6 %] 7822[62.4 %] <0.0001
 Inpatient LOS (days) 1.50(7.21) 4.14(16.22) <0.0001 0.71(4.81) 2.10(9.46) <0.0001 0.60(4.09) 1.78(9.78) <0.0001 0.24(1.70) 0.76(4.36) <0.0001
 Number of Visits (PPPM)             
 Inpatient stays 0.02(0.05) 0.04(0.09) <0.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.03(0.07) <0.0001 0.01(0.03) 0.02(0.06) <0.0001 0.00(0.02) 0.01(0.04) <0.0001
 Outpatient Visitsb 1.72(1.70) 2.07(2.01) <0.0001 1.26(1.36) 1.63(1.65) <0.0001 0.97(1.09) 1.27(1.31) <0.0001 0.73(0.95) 0.97(1.13) <0.0001
 Outpatient ER Visits 0.03(0.08) 0.05(0.13) <0.0001 0.02(0.06) 0.04(0.09) <0.0001 0.02(0.05) 0.03(0.08) <0.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.02(0.07) <0.0001
 Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 1.63(1.52) 1.96(1.70) <0.0001 1.36(1.28) 1.78(1.49) <0.0001 1.22(1.15) 1.67(1.34) <0.0001 0.62(0.87) 1.22(1.14) <0.0001
 Outpatient Office Visits 0.86(0.86) 0.94(0.94) <0.0001 0.71(0.78) 0.83(0.82) <0.0001 0.56(0.67) 0.67(0.74) <0.0001 0.46(0.67) 0.53(0.64) <0.0001
All-cause Healthcare Utilization 3 Years Post-index Date
 Number of Continuous Enrollment Patients 3994[37.2 %] 3533[32.9 %] <0.0001 44654[49.3 %] 38489[42.5 %] <0.0001 3903[49.2 %] 3485[43.9 %] <0.0001 7188[57.4 %] 5971[47.7 %] <0.0001
 Inpatient LOS (days) 1.38(7.05) 3.72(14.25) <0.0001 0.69(4.98) 1.77(8.28) <0.0001 0.72(5.43) 1.68(8.17) <0.0001 0.29(2.57) 0.72(5.57) <0.0001
 Number of visits (PPPM)             
 Inpatient Stays 0.02(0.05) 0.04(0.09) <0.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.02(0.07) <0.0001 0.01(0.03) 0.02(0.07) <0.0001 0.00(0.02) 0.01(0.04) <0.0001
 OutpatientVisitsb 1.64(1.74) 1.97(2.14) <0.0001 1.24(1.41) 1.55(1.65) <0.0001 0.96(1.18) 1.22(1.35) <0.0001 0.77(0.97) 0.91(1.16) <0.0001
 Outpatient ER Visits 0.03(0.08) 0.05(0.11) <0.0001 0.02(0.05) 0.03(0.10) <0.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.03(0.09) <0.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.02(0.06) <0.0001
 Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 1.62(1.49) 1.94(1.70) <0.0001 1.36(1.29) 1.75(1.49) <0.0001 1.22(1.15) 1.60(1.31) <0.0001 0.69(0.91) 1.20(1.15) <0.0001
 Outpatient Office Visits 0.83(0.86) 0.87(0.89) 0.043 0.70(0.78) 0.79(0.81) <0.0001 0.55(0.66) 0.65(0.75) <0.0001 0.48(0.69) 0.51(0.63) 0.012
  1. PSM propensity score matching, CVD cardiovascular disease, CV cardiovascular, CHD RE coronary heart disease risk equivalent, SD standard deviation, LOS length of stay, PPPM per patient per month, ER emergency room
  2. aChi-square tests were used to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in categorical variables; student t-tests were used for the continuous variables
  3. bOutpatient visits included emergency room, laboratory/pathology, radiology, outpatient surgical or diagnostic procedure and office visits