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Table 2 PSM-adjusted follow-up (short and long-term) healthcare utilization for hyperlipidemic patients with and without new CV events, categorized by CVD risk level

From: Clinical and economic burden associated with cardiovascular events among patients with hyperlipidemia: a retrospective cohort study

  History of CV event cohort   Modified CHD RE cohort   Moderate risk cohort   Low risk cohort  
  Without CV events With CV events Without CV events With CV events Without CV events With CV events Without CV events With CV events
(N = 10741) (N = 10741) (N = 90614) (N = 90614) (N = 7938) (N = 7938) (N = 12527) (N = 12527)
N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea N/Mean [%]/(SD) N/Mean [%]/(SD) P-valuea
All-cause healthcare utilization 1 month (acute phase) post-index date
 Number of continuous enrollment patients 10577[98.5 %] 10282[95.7 %] <0.0001 89539[98.8 %] 88196[97.3 %] <0.0001 7845[98.8 %] 7727[97.3 %] <0.0001 12428[99.2 %] 12317[98.3 %] <0.0001
 Inpatient LOS (days) 0.25(1.94) 6.43(6.94) <0.0001 0.07(0.90) 5.22(5.39) <0.0001 0.04(0.61) 4.97(4.91) <0.0001 0.01(0.35) 4.42(4.08) <0.0001
 Number of patients with Inpatient Visits 346[3.3 %] 10282[100.0 %] <0.0001 1102[1.2 %] 88196[100.0 %] <0.0001 59[0.8 %] 7727[100.0 %] <0.0001 32[0 .3 %] 12317[100.0 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient ER Visits 387[3.7 %] 1503[14.6 %] <0.0001 1674[1.9 %] 15425[17.5 %] <0.0001 124[1.6 %] 1663[21.5 %] <0.0001 128[1.0 %] 3194[25.9 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Office Visits 5431[51.3 %] 7141[69.5 %] <0.0001 39190[43.8 %] 67063[76.0 %] <0.0001 2857[36.4 %] 5654[73.2 %] <0.0001 3110[25.0 %] 9311[75.6 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Visitsb 7297[69.0 %] 9296[90.4 %] <0.0001 50185[56.0 %] 81329[92.2 %] <0.0001 3616[46.1 %] 7078[91.6 %] <0.0001 3895[31.3 %] 11266[91.5 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 6842[64.7 %] 7253[70.5 %] <0.0001 56480[63.1 %] 67216[76.2 %] <0.0001 4736[60.4 %] 6266[81.1 %] <0.0001 3500[28.2 %] 9242[75.0 %] <0.0001
 Number of visits (PPPM)             
 Inpatient stays 0.04(0.21) 1.18 (0.48) <0.0001 0.01(0.13) 1.14(0.42) <0.0001 0.01(0.11) 1.13(0.40) <0.0001 0.00(0.06) 1.11(0.36) <0.0001
 Outpatient Visitsb 2.06(2.76) 4.64(4.68) <0.0001 1.35(2.05) 4.29(4.11) <0.0001 1.00(1.67) 4.17(4.08) <0.0001 0.64(1.32) 4.24(4.13) <0.0001
 Outpatient ER Visits 0.04(0.22) 0.17(0.45) <0.0001 0.02(0.16) 0.20(0.47) <0.0001 0.02(0.14) 0.25(0.51) <0.0001 0.01(0.12) 0.29(0.53) <0.0001
 Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 1.76(1.93) 2.29(2.16) <0.0001 1.43(1.60) 2.34(1.96) <0.0001 1.21(1.40) 2.28(1.76) <0.0001 0.47(0.93) 1.74(1.50) <0.0001
 Outpatient Office Visits 1.00(1.50) 1.42(1.49) <0.0001 0.77(1.31) 1.50(1.41) <0.0001 0.62(1.19) 1.38(1.35) <.0001 0.41(0.98) 1.39(1.34) <0.0001
All-cause Healthcare Utilizations 1 year (31–365 days) post-index date
 Number of continuous enrollment patients 8447[78.6 %] 7808[72.7 %] <0.0001 75203[83.0 %] 70525[77.8 %] <0.0001 6588[83.0 %] 6165[77.7 %] <.0001 10806[86.3 %] 10089[80.5 %] <0.0001
 Inpatient LOS (days) 2.06(13.01) 6.61(20.85) <0.0001 0.70(4.94) 3.20(13.27) <0.0001 0.51(3.98) 2.46(11.26) <.0001 0.23(2.72) 1.75(10.73) <0.0001
 Number of patients with Inpatient Visits 1304[15.4 %] 2916[37.3 %] <0.0001 6442[8.6 %] 18316[26.0 %] <0.0001 445[6.8 %] 1439[23.3 %] <.0001 376[3.5 %] 1747[17.3 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient ER Visits 2062[24.4 %] 2767[35.4 %] <0.0001 11284[15.0 %] 19597[27.8 %] <0.0001 876[13.3 %] 1558[25.3 %] <.0001 1109[10.3 %] 2370[23.5 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Office Visits 7810[92.5 %] 7423[95.1 %] <0.0001 70005[93.1 %] 68022[96.5 %] <0.0001 5692[86.4 %] 5801[94.1 %] <.0001 8009[74.1 %] 9396[93.1 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Visitsb 8216[97.3 %] 7726[98.9 %] <0.0001 72302[96.1 %] 69833[99.0 %] <0.0001 6028[91.5 %] 6048[98.1 %] <.0001 8569[79.3 %] 9777[96.9 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 6685[79.1 %] 6397[81.9 %] <0.0001 61668[82.0 %] 59379[84.2 %] <0.0001 5440[82.6 %] 5411[87.8 %] <.0001 6611[61.2 %] 8281[82.1 %] <0.0001
 Number of visits PPPM             
 Inpatient stays 0.02(0.06) 0.06(0.11) <0.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.04(0.09) <0.0001 0.01(0.03) 0.03(0.07) <.0001 0.00(0.02) 0.02(0.06) <0.0001
 OutpatientVisitsb 1.81(1.71) 2.62(2.20) <0.0001 1.28(1.33) 2.13(1.86) <0.0001 0.95(1.09) 1.74(1.62) <.0001 0.65(0.88) 1.50(1.47) <0.0001
 Outpatient ER Visits 0.04(0.08) 0.06(0.14) <0.0001 0.02(0.06) 0.04(0.10) <0.0001 0.02(0.05) 0.04(0.09) <.0001 0.01(0.04) 0.03(0.08) <0.0001
 Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 1.66(1.53) 2.05(1.69) <0.0001 1.37(1.28) 1.87(1.48) <0.0001 1.18(1.12) 1.80(1.32) <.0001 0.50(0.75) 1.29(1.11) <0.0001
 Outpatient Office Visits 0.90(0.88) 1.10(0.99) <0.0001 0.73(0.79) 0.98(0.87) <0.0001 0.57(0.71) 0.80(0.80) <0.0001 0.42(0.64) 0.68(0.73) <0.0001
All-cause healthcare utilization 2 years post-index date
 Number of patients with Inpatient Visits 848[14.3 %] 1660[29.8 %] <0.0001 5208[8.8 %] 11020[20.7 %] <0.0001 394[7.7 %] 856[18.4 %] <0.0001 391[4.4 %] 915[11.7 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient ER Visits 1455[24.5 %] 1845[33.1 %] <0.0001 9514[16.1 %] 13799[25.9 %] <0.0001 759[14.9 %] 1134[24.3 %] <0.0001 963[10.9 %] 1583[20.2 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Office Visits 5371[90.6 %] 5084[91.2 %] 0.286 54074[91.8 %] 49751[93.5 %] <0.0001 4433[87.0 %] 4213[90.4 %] <0.0001 6969[78.8 %] 6944[88.8 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Visitsb 5668[95.6 %] 5352[96.0 %] 0.325 55882[94.9 %] 51394[96.6 %] <0.0001 4669[91.6 %] 4445[95.3 %] <0.0001 7377[83.4 %] 7286[93.1 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 4720[79.6 %] 4549[81.6 %] 0.008 48323[82.0 %] 44590[83.8 %] <0.0001 4228[83.0 %] 4015[86.1 %] <0.0001 5886[66.6 %] 6324[80.8 %] <0.0001
All-cause healthcare utilization 3 years post-index date
 Number of patients with Inpatient Visits 563[14.1 %] 961[27.2 %] <0.0001 3941[8.8 %] 7146[18.6 %] <0.0001 288[7.4 %] 590[16.9 %] <0.0001 325[4.5 %] 617[10.3 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient ER Visits 965[24.2 %] 1173[33.2 %] <0.0001 7049[15.8 %] 9683[25.2 %] <0.0001 503[12.9 %] 817[23.4 %] <0.0001 804[11.2 %] 1187[19.9 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Office Visits 3569[89.4 %] 3150[89.2 %] 0.78 40638[91.0 %] 35419[92.0 %] <0.0001 3420[87.6 %] 3095[88.8 %] 0.115 5871[81.7 %] 5209[87.2 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Visitsb 3775[94.5 %] 3335[94.4 %] 0.819 42139[94.4 %] 36762[95.5 %] <0.0001 3587[91.9 %] 3272[93.9 %] 0.001 6194[86.2 %] 5468[91.6 %] <0.0001
 Number of patients with Outpatient Pharmacy Visits 3216[80.5 %] 2908[82.3 %] 0.047 36437[81.6 %] 32319[84.0 %] <0.0001 3221[82.5 %] 2958[84.9 %] 0.006 4991[69.4 %] 4804[80.5 %] <0.0001
  1. Refer to Table 3 for length of stay and number of visits per patient per month during years 2 and 3 of the follow-up period
  2. PSM propensity score matching, CVD cardiovascular disease, CV cardiovascular, CHD RE coronary heart disease risk equivalent, SD standard deviation, LOS length of stay, PPPM per patient per month, ER emergency room
  3. aChi-square tests were used to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in categorical variables; student t-tests were used for the continuous variables
  4. bOutpatient visits included emergency room, laboratory/pathology, radiology, outpatient surgical or diagnostic procedure and office visits