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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: The clinical impact of valvular heart disease in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 80 and older

  No VHD (n = 92) Mild VHD (n = 367) Moderate-to-severe VHD (n = 97) p value
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Male, n (%) 38 (41 %) 135 (37 %) 33 (34 %) <0.001
 Age, (years) 84.1 ± 2.9 84.6 ± 3.6 86.3 ± 4.3 0.58
Coronary risk factors and multimorbidity
 Smoking (current or ex), n (%) 31 (34 %) 122 (33 %) 22 (23 %) 0.11
 Hypertension, n (%) 60 (66 %) 258 (70 %) 72 (74 %) 0.46
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 40 (45 %) 165 (46 %) 37 (39 %) 0.46
 Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 21 (23 %) 62 (17 %) 19 (20 %) 0.38
 CIRS, median (IQR) 4 (3–5) 3 (3–5) 4 (3–6) 0.008
Prior history
 Myocardial infarction, n (%) 17 (19 %) 35 (10 %) 8 (8 %) 0.029
 TIA or stroke, n (%) 15 (16 %) 57 (16 %) 29 (30 %) 0.025
 COPD, n (%) 13 (12 %) 40 (11 %) 10 (10 %) 0.79
 Peripheral arterial disease, n (%) 10 (11 %) 29 (8 %) 11 (11 %) 0.45
 CABG, n (%) 8 (9 %) 20 (5 %) 8 (8 %) 0.39
 PCI, n (%) 12 (13 %) 30 (8 %) 5 (5 %) 0.13
 Valvular surgery, n (%) 2 (2 %) 15 (4 %) 2 (2 %) 0.48
 Heart failure, n (%) 8 (9 %) 36 (10 %) 16 (16 %) 0.14
 Chronic atrial fibrillation, n (%) 4 (4 %) 34 (9 %) 19 (20 %) 0.002
 Pacemaker, n (%) 5 (6 %) 21 (6 %) 5 (5 %) 0.97
Symptoms
 Angina pectoris, n (%) 11 (12 %) 58 (16 %) 21 (22 %) 0.20
 Dyspnea ≥ 3a, n (%) 22 (24 %) 101 (28 %) 42 (43 %) 0.005
 Peripheral edema, n (%) 31 (34 %) 115 (31 %) 42 (43 %) 0.090
 Fatigue, n (%) 17 (19 %) 75 (21 %) 22 (23 %) 0.80
Cardiac medications
 Diuretics, n (%) 45 (49 %) 162 (44 %) 54 (56 %) 0.12
 Potassium-sparing agents, n (%) 17 (18 %) 53 (14 %) 17 (18 %) 0.54
 ACE inhibitors, n (%) 20 (22 %) 123 (28 %) 29 (30 %) 0.39
 ARBs, n (%) 18 (20 %) 51 (14 %) 17 (18 %) 0.34
 ß-blockers, n (%) 28 (30 %) 161 (44 %) 46 (47 %) 0.035
 Digitalis, n (%) 0 (0 %) 11 (3 %) 11 (11 %) <0.001
Physical activity and cognitive functioning
 ADL, median (IQR) 25 (21–27) 25 (21–28) 23 (17–27) <0.001
 MMSE, median (IQR) 28 (26–29) 28 (26–29) 28 (25–29) 0.36
 GDS-15, median (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 3 (2–5) 0.033
  1. aaccording to the Medical Research Council dyspnea scale. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CABG coronary artery bypass graft surgery, CIRS cumulative illness rating scale, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IQR interquartile range, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, TIA transient ischemic attack