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Table 2 Patient´s measurements divided into “low” or “high” groups according to median CFR and VO2peakFFM

From: Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

  Coronary flow reserve VO2PeakFFM
  Low (CFR ≤ 2.28) High (CFR > 2.28) Low (VO2PeakFFM ≤ 126.5) High (VO2PeakFFM >126.5)
  n = 32 n = 33 n = 32 n = 33
Patient characteristics
 Age 64 (59–68) 62 (56–67) 65 (61–69) 62 (55–65)*
 Male sex 26 (81.3 %) 28 (84.9 %) 24 (75.0 %) 30 (90.9 %)
 CABG/PCI involving LAD 16 (50.0 %) 20 (60.0 %) 19 (59.4 %) 17 (51.5 %)
 ACE–inhibitors 16 (50.0 %) 13 (39.4 %) 16 (50.0 %) 13 (39.4 %)
 Beta–blockers 17 (53.1 %) 17 (51.5 %) 17 (53.1 %) 17 (51.5 %)
Echocardiography
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 53 (45–59) 56 (48–60) 54 (46–58) 55 (47–61)
 End diastolic volume (mL/m2) 38.4 (34.4–50.5) 40.8 (34.5–47.7) 36.0 (31.3–39.6) 43.6 (39.2–54.1)*
 End systolic volume (mL/m2) 17.6 (15.0–26.6) 17.7 (14.2–24.3) 16.4 (13.8–22.0) 18.5 (15.6–27.0)*
 Coronary flow reserve (ratio) 1.91 (1.77–2.09) 2.62 (2.53–2.97)* 2.13 (1.87–2.55) 2.52 (2.07–2.71)*
Exercise capacity
 VO2peakBW (ml/min/kg) 18.3 (16.5–21.9) 23.2 (20.5–27.3)* 17.7 (16.0–20.5) 25.1 (22.3–27.6)*
 VO2peakFFM (ml/min/kg FFM(2/3)) 116.0 (104.0–129.9) 135.5 (121.6–161.9)* 108.7 (98.4–119.6) 145.6 (133.1–162.7)*
 Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) 1.21 (1.16–1.28) 1.19 (1.15–1.22) 1.21 (1.15–1.28) 1.18 (1.15–1.23)
Glucose metabolism
 Insulin sensitivity (ISIcomposite) 2.21 (1.71–3.50) 2.49 (1.76–3.59) 2.28 (1.88–3.35) 2.48 (1.66–3.77)
 Insulin sensitivity (ISIHOMA) 0.28 (0.19–0.46) 0.31 (0.22–0.46) 0.28 (0.19–0.45) 0.30 (0.22–0.48)
 Hba1c (%) 5.9 (5.7–6.1) 5.9 (5.5–6.2) 6.1 (5.9–6.3) 5.8 (5.5–6.0)*
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.88 (5.31–6.33) 5.85 (5.65–6.18) 6.07 (5.70–6.33) 5.73 (5.46–6.07)*
 Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/L) 100 (60–131) 88 (56–120) 94 (60–124) 93 (61–121)
 Glucose tolerance (2 h-PG) (mmol/L) 7.95 (6.31–9.49) 7.37 (5.91–8.86) 8.14 (6.47–9.66) 7.17 (5.64–8.85)
 Beta cell function (Btotal) (nL/kg/min) 1.90 (1.46–2.37) 1.93 (1.46–2.86) 1.85 (1.45–2.37) 1.99 (1.46–2.71)
 β-cell function adjusted for insulin sensitivity (Di) 4.89 (2.82–8.12) 5.52 (3.18–7.45) 5.48 (3.06–8.98) 4.64 (2.82–7.17)
Body composition
 BMI (kg/m2) 31.1 (29.5–35.1) 31.5 (29.9–33.3) 31.0 (29.5–33.2) 31.8 (29.9–33.7)
 Waist-to-hip-ratio 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 1.00 (0.97–1.03)
 Body fat (%) 35.7 (32.6–41.0) 32.2 (29.1–35.7)* 34.3 (31.0–42.1) 33.4 (30.5–35.8)
 Visceral fat (mm3) 293 (260–332)(n = 14) 276 (211–316)(n = 23) 293 (222–345)(n = 16) 280 (211–297)(n = 21)
 Central-to-peripheral fat ratio 1.52 (1.34–1.70) 1.65 (1.39–2.05) 1.54 (1.34–1.82) 1.59 (1.39–1.89)
  1. VO 2 peak FFM peak rate of oxygen consumption per kilogram of fat free body mass, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, LAD left anterior descending artery, D i disposition index, BMI Body mass index, VO 2 peak BW peak rate of oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass. *p < 0.05