Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline demographics, biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters categorized by pericardial and periaortic fat volumes

From: The association among MDCT-derived three-dimensional visceral adiposities on cardiac diastology and dyssynchrony in asymptomatic population

PCF, ml Q1 (n = 106) Q2 (n = 106) Q3 (n = 106) F p-value
<63.6 ml 63.6-88.7 ml >88.7 ml
Age (years) 51.67 ± 8.81 53.60 ± 9.98 55.40 ± 10.29 3.609 0.028
Male 56 (52.8 %) 72 (67.9 %) 73 (68.9 %) - 0.025
BMI (kg/m2) 24.78 ± 3.50 25.48 ± 3.97 25.40 ± 3.41 0.787 0.456
SBP (mmHg) 119.04 ± 17.68 126.30 ± 16.88 127.15 ± 15.20 8.193 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 74.42 ± 11.17 77.97 ± 9.99 77.62 ± 10.27 5.121 0.006
HbA1c (%) 5.97 ± 0.75 5.97 ± 0.62 6.08 ± 0.73 1.242 0.29
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 201.27 ± 37.52 203.14 ± 37.28 205.33 ± 42.73 0.977 0.378
TG (mg/dL) 137.70 ± 77.21 149.98 ± 90.00 144.72 ± 94.28 0.733 0.481
HDL (mg/dL) 51.50 ± 13.96 50.07 ± 14.13 48.72 ± 13.67 4.12 0.017
LDL (mg/dL) 130.75 ± 33.79 132.18 ± 33.79 135.29 ± 33.23 1.595 0.205
Hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.174 ± 0.022 0.255 ± 0.035 0.26 ± 0.043 1.312 0.271
BNP (pg/mL) 33.62 ± 6.33 25.64 ± 4.23 32.88 ± 7.19 0.532 0.588
Hypertension 28 (26.4 %) 35 (33 %) 39 (36.8 %) - 0.241
Diabetes 13 (12.3 %) 14 (13.2 %) 19 (17.9 %) - 0.443
Hyperlipidemia 33 (31.1 %) 42 (39.6 %) 34 (32.1 %) - 0.236
LAD (mm) 28.72 ± 5.62 30.51 ± 7.57 32.11 ± 5.15 7.956 <0.001
LVEF (%) 67.81 ± 4.27 67.61 ± 4.92 67.08 ± 5.2 0.657 0.519
LVEDV (ml) 101.03 ± 17.3 103.46 ± 18.97 105.718.91 1.708 0.183
LVESV (ml) 32.36 ± 6.35 33.75 ± 9.14 35.06 ± 9.78 2.622 0.074
LVMI (g/m2) 83.57 ± 14.77 81.03 ± 23.78 84.03 ± 22.36 0.585 0.055
IVS (mm) 9.89 ± 7.95 9.53 ± 1.44 9.88 ± 1.33 0.198 0.028
PWT (mm) 9.84 ± 7.93 9.26 ± 1.37 9.81 ± 1.11 0.522 0.059
E (cm/s) 69.27 ± 15.13 62.3 ± 17.88 61.69 ± 15.39 7.42 0.001
DT (ms) 196.88 ± 32.98 208.7 ± 43 214.72 ± 49.06 4.211 0.016
IVRT (ms) 87.14 ± 13.58 90.91 ± 14.85 92.44 ± 16.49 3.588 0.028
E/A 1.18 ± 0.37 1.04 ± 0.47 0.94 ± 0.24 7.927 <0.001
S’ (cm/s) 7.54 ± 1.71 7.24 ± 1.5 7.11 ± 1.43 2.183 0.114
E’ (cm/s) 8.77 ± 2.06 7.68 ± 2.17 6.75 ± 1.6 28.32 <0.001
E/E’ 7.17 ± 2.21 7.9 ± 4.03 8.49 ± 3.19 5.885 0.003
Diastolic dysfunctiona 52 (49.1 %) 77 (72.6 %) 89 (84 %) - <0.001
Dias-D (ms) 21.42 ± 15.27 26.42 ± 22.18 32.06 ± 25.39 2.258 0.001
Sys-D (ms) 28.21 ± 21.42 31.79 ± 27.6 33.18 ± 29.09 1.838 0.161
TPAF, ml Q1 (n = 106) Q2 (n = 106) Q3 (n = 106) F p-value
<5.71 ml 5.71-8.53 ml >8.53 ml
Age (years) 52.74 ± 9.37 53.53 ± 9.88 54.42 ± 10.17 0.749 0.474
Male 42 (39.6 %) 74 (69.8 %) 85 (80.2 %) - <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 3.72 25.42 ± 3.46 25.31 ± 3.74 0.41 0.385
SBP (mmHg) 119.87 ± 17.14 125.48 ± 17.4 127.27 ± 15.51 4.259 0.015
DBP (mmHg) 75.21 ± 11.07 78.9 ± 10.21 75.95 ± 10.13 1.876 0.155
HbA1c (%) 5.96 ± 0.78 5.98 ± 0.64 6.08 ± 0.70 1.141 0.321
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 201.56 ± 36.87 204.7 ± 39.09 203.56 ± 41.8 0.133 0.876
TG (mg/dL) 135.06 ± 77.37 146.32 ± 82.82 151.18 ± 100.5 0.843 0.431
HDL (mg/dL) 52.75 ± 14.88 48.85 ± 13.22 48.68 ± 13.33 3.072 0.048
LDL (mg/dL) 129.99 ± 33.17 135.68 ± 34.56 132.64 ± 32.96 0.368 0.68
Hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.167 ± 0.022 0.216 ± 0.049 0.312 ± 0.047 1.761 0.174
BNP (pg/mL) 26.41 ± 3.93 26.84 ± 5.17 38.89 ± 8.18 1.381 0.253
Hypertension 25 (23.6 %) 39 (36.8 %) 38 (35.8 %) - 0.064
Diabetes 11 (10.4 %) 17 (16 %) 18 (17 %) - 0.321
Hyperlipidemia 36 (33.9 %) 35 (33 %) 38 (35.8 %) - 0.908
LAD (mm) 28.65 ± 6.55 30.3 ± 6.54 32.39 ± 5.32 9.765 <0.001
LVEF (%) 68.23 ± 4.05 67.14 ± 5.09 67.13 ± 5.16 1.851 0.159
LVEDV (ml) 99.98 ± 17.88 105.13 ± 17.79 105.08 ± 19.34 2.755 0.065
LVESV (ml) 31.8 ± 7.5 34.63 ± 8.27 34.74 ± 9.64 4.059 0.018
LVMI (g/m2) 82.11 ± 17.22 85.86 ± 21.18 80.69 ± 22.74 1.663 0.191
IVS (mm) 9.04 ± 1.49 9.48 ± 1.01 10.79 ± 7.88 4.048 0.018
PWT (mm) 8.93 ± 1.11 9.4 ± 1.3 10.58 ± 7.87 3.576 0.029
E (cm/s) 68.78 ± 19.08 65.44 ± 15.23 59.13 ± 13.31 9.465 <0.001
DT (ms) 198 ± 39.47 204.14 ± 38.78 218.22 ± 47.3 4.204 0.016
IVRT (ms) 89.77 ± 14.71 89.82 ± 13.85 90.9 ± 16.84 0.199 0.697
E/A 1.18 ± 0.46 1.06 ± 0.36 0.92 ± 0.28 12.42 <0.001
S’ (cm/s) 7.21 ± 1.52 7.38 ± 1.59 7.31 ± 1.57 0.328 0.072
E’ (cm/s) 8.39 ± 2.34 7.92 ± 1.95 6.89 ± 1.78 15.01 <0.001
E/E’ 7.89 ± 4.05 7.61 ± 2.49 8.06 ± 3.08 0.921 0.399
Diastolic dysfunctiona 59 (55.7 %) 70 (66 %) 89 (84 %) - <0.001
Dias-D (ms) 23.68 ± 18.89 27.21 ± 18.75 32.99 ± 25.63 3.263 0.003
Sys-D (ms) 32.64 ± 25.35 28.49 ± 26.43 32.06 ± 27.01 1.947 0.165
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage)
  2. aDiastolic dysfunction was determined according to EAE/ASE recommendations [19]
  3. Abbreviations: PCF pericardial fat, TPAF thoracic periaortic fat BMI body-mass-index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG triglyceride, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, Hs-CRP high-senstivity C-reactive protein, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic volume, LAD left atrial dimension (M-mode), LVMI left ventricular mass index, IVS interventricular septum thickness (M-mode), PWT posterior wall thickness (M-mode), E early mitral inflow velocity, A late mitral inflow velocity, DT deceleration time, IVRT isovolumetric relaxation time, S’ systolic tissue Doppler velocity, E’ early-diastolic tissue Doppler velocity, Dias-D E’ time-to-peak difference (diastolic dyssynchrony), Sys-D S’ time-to-peak difference (systolic dyssynchrony)