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Table 2 Characteristics of the normal and abnormal PWV patients

From: Association between environmental particulate matter and arterial stiffness in patients undergoing hemodialysis

Characteristic Studied patients (n = 127)
Normal PWV (n = 59) Abnormal PWV (n = 68) P
Age (y) 56.4 ± 10.9 60.3 ± 8.7 0.032
Male sex (%) 30.5 48.5 0.039
baPWV (cm/s) 1247.2 ± 292.0 2218.4 ± 528.7 <0.001
DM (%) 10.2 35.3 0.001
Inradialytic hypotension (%) 34.5 8.8 <0.001
Always hypotension (%) 8.8 0 0.013
HDF (%) 18.6 14.7 0.551
Hb (g/dL) 10.5 ± 1.4 10.5 ± 1.3 0.744
BUN (mg/dL) 65.0 ± 15.7 64.5 ± 16.1 0.864
Cr (mg/dL) 11.1 ± 2.1 10.6 ± 2.7 0.223
Na (mEq/L) 139.6 ± 3.2 140.0 ± 3.1 0.518
K (mEq/L) 4.8 ± 0.7 4.9 ± 0.6 0.511
Calcium (mg/dL) 9.7 ± 1.0 9.9 ± 1.0 0.276
Phosphorous (mg/dL) 4.6 ± 1.5 4.6 ± 1.4 0.815
Calcium-phosphorous product (mg/dL)2 46.7 ± 16.5 45.4 ± 16.2 0.667
Alb (g/dL) 4.0 ± 0.2 4.1 ± 0.4 0.429
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 180.5 ± 39.1 189.4 ± 38.0 0.199
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 195.5 ± 130.0 226.1 ± 177.5 0.276
Ultrafiltration amount per dialysis session (L) 2.5 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 0.9 0.017
SBP (mmHg) 129.2 ± 29.3 147.9 ± 21.5 <0.001
ABI 1.00 ± 0.15 1.05 ± 0.12 0.055
TBI 0.72 ± 0.16 0.73 ± 0.15 0.545
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 3.1 22.5 ± 3.4 0.916
iPTH (pg/mL) 188.6 ± 201.9 193.7 ± 234.6 0.898
Urea reduction rate 0.78 ± 0.06 0.78 ± 0.06 0.747
Kt/V 1.8 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.4 0.655
Net protein catabolic rate (g/day/kg body weight) 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.4 0.946
Al (ng/mL) 8.8 ± 5.7 10.4 ± 8.9 0.232
Hemodialysis duration (months) 78.7 ± 67.8 67.2 ± 56.0 0.298
hsCRP (mg/L) 3.4 ± 3.5 5.8 ± 7.7 0.023
NO2 (ppb) 22.9 ± 3.6 22.9 ± 4.0 0.984
CO (ppm) 0.63 ± 0.17 0.64 ± 0.22 0.890
SO2 (ppb) 6.7 ± 2.0 7.2 ± 2.1 0.184
PM10 (ug/m3) 57.2 ± 5.4 58. ± 5.9 0.226
PM2.5 (ug/m3) 31.6 ± 2.9 31.9 ± 2.8 0.513
O3 (ppb) 25.7 ± 2.8 26.0 ± 2.9 0.480
NO (ppb) 9.9 ± 4.7 10.4 ± 9.8 0.707
  1. Normal PWV = within the distribution of PWV, Abnormal PWV: higher than the distribution of PWV, DM = diabetes mellitus, HDF = hemodiafiltration, Hb = hemoglobulin, BUN = blood urea nitrogen, Cr = creatinine, K = potassium, SBP = systolic blood pressure, Alb = albumin, ABI = ankle brachial index, TBI = tibial brachial index, iPTH = intact parathyroid hormone, Kt/V = a number used to quantify hemodialysis treatment adequacy, Al = aluminum, hsCRP = high sensitivity C reactive protein, NO 2  = environmental nitrogen dioxide, CO = environmental carbon dioxide, SO 2  = environmental sulfur dioxide, PM 10  = particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 mm, PM 2.5  = particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 mm, O 3  = environmental ozone, NO = environmental nitrogen oxide