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Table 3 Health behaviours at baseline and incidence of coronary heart disease in men and women in the ten-year follow-up

From: Pessimism and the risk for coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older Finnish men and women: a ten-year follow-up study

  Men Women
Coronary heart disease   Coronary heart disease   
Yes No Yes No
N % N % Chi-squared p- value N % N % Chi-squared p-value
Heavy drinking             
 No 53 10.3 461 89.7    43 5.5 733 94.5   
 Yes 4 3.3 119 96.7 6.070 0.014 1 4.3 22 95.7 0.061 0.805
Daily smoking             
 No 45 8.3 498 91.7    39 5.4 685 94.6   
 Yes 12 12.8 82 87.2 1.973 0.160 5 6.7 70 93.3 0.214 0.644
Regular physical exercise             
 No 28 8.7 293 91.3    15 4.8 295 95.2   
 Yes 29 9.2 287 91.3 0.040 0.841 29 5.9 460 94.1 0.435 0.510
Use of statins             
 No 46 8.2 513 91.8    36 4.9 692 95.1   
 Yes 11 14.1 67 85.9 2.898 0.089 8 11.3 63 88.7 4.970 0.026
Medication for hypertension             
 No 38 7.7 454 92.3    25 4.1 587 95.9   
 Yes 19 13.1 126 86.9 3.978 0.046 19 10.2 168 89.8 10.160 0.001
Medication for diabetes             
 No 51 8.3 560 91.7    40 5.1 746 94.9   
 Yes 6 23.1 20 76.9 6.641 0.010 4 30.8 9 69.2 16.207 <0.001