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Table 5 Factors independently associated with long term mortality following valve surgery in Cox proportional hazard modelling and the significance of the relationship of the model

From: A review of outcome following valve surgery for rheumatic heart disease in Australia

Hazard Ratio (95 % CI) All RHD-related Non-RHD
 Age (/additional year) 1.03 (1.02 – 1.04) 1.03 (1.01 – 1.05) 1.03 (1.02 – 1.04)
Pre-operative comorbidities
 Diabetes 1.4 (1.2 – 1.6) 1.7 (1.1 – 2.5) 1.4 (1.2 – 1.6)
 Chronic kidney disease 1.5 (1.3 – 1.7) 1.9 (1.2 – 2.9) 1.4 (1.3 – 1.6)
Pre-operative status
 NYHA III & IV 1.3 (1.1 – 1.4) - 1.3 (1.1 – 1.4)
 Atrial fibrillation 1.4 (1.2 – 1.6) - 1.5 (1.3 – 1.7)
 LVEF >45 % 0.7 (0.6 – 0.8) - 0.7 (0.6 – 0.8)
Operative procedure
 Mechanical valve 0.8 (0.7 – 0.9) - 0.8 (0.7 – 0.9)
 Valve repair only 0.8 (0.6 – 0.9) - 0.8 (0.6 – 0.9)
 Multiple valve surgery - - 1.4 (1.1 – 1.7)
Initial admission
 ICU stay (>43 h) 1.2 (1.1 – 1.4) - 1.3 (1.1 – 1.4)
 Ventilation time (>11 h) - 1.7 (1.1 – 2.9) -
 Post procedure LOS (/additional day) 1.01 (1.00 – 1.01) 1.02 (1.01 – 1.03) 1.00 (1.00 – 1.01)
Complications within 30 days
 Readmission 1.4 (1.2 – 1.6) - 1.4 (1.2 – 1.7)
 Acute kidney injury 1.9 (1.6 – 2.3) - 1.9 (1.6 – 2.3)
 Stroke/ TIA 1.6 (1.2 – 2.1) - 1.7 (1.3 – 2.2)
 Septicaemia 2.1 (1.6 – 2.8) - 2.2 (1.6 – 2.9)
Significance of model (based on −2 Log Likelihood) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001