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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in childhood and adulthood

From: Associations between risk factors in childhood (12–13 years) and adulthood (48–49 years) and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Kaunas Cardiovascular Risk Cohort Study

Characteristic Men Women P value
n = 168 n = 212
Childhood (12–13 years)
Systolic BP, mm Hg (mean; SD) 112.3 (10.7) 116.6 (12.4) 0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg (mean; SD) 55.1 (10.2) 55.6 (11.1) 0.649
BMI, kg/m2 (median; IQR) 17.9 (16.5;20.0) 18.6 (17.1;20.2) 0.021
Sexual maturity score (median; IQR) 0 (0;1) 6 (4;9) <0.001
Adulthood (48–49 years)
Systolic BP, mm Hg (median; IQR) 134.3 (123.5;150.0) 125.6 (116.2;138.7) <0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg (median; IQR) 89.3 (82.0;96.0) 80.7 (74.8;88.0) <0.001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l (mean; SD) 4.0 (1.1) 3.8 (1.1) 0.106
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l (mean; SD) 1.4 (0.5) 1.8 (0.4) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (median; IQR) 26.7 (24.5;29.5) 25.7 (23.0;29.6) 0.145
Hypertension, N (%) 106 (63.1) 77 (36.3) <0.001
Smoking, % N (%) 68 (40.5) 41 (19.3) <0.001
Intima- media thickness, mm (mean; SD) 0.66 (0.11) 0.61 (0.08) <0.001
Pulse wave velocity, m/s (mean; SD) 7.1 (2.1) 6.1 (1.7) <0.001
Educational level, N (%)
Low 54 (32.1) 47 (22.2) 0.058
Intermediate 53 (31.5) 67 (31.6)  
High 61 (36.3) 98 (46.2)  
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index; BP blood pressure; HDL high density lipoprotein; IQR interquartile range (25 percentile and 75 percentile values); LDL low density lipoprotein; SD standard deviation