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Table 2 Comparisons of patients’ characteristics between patients with normonatremia and patients with hyponatremia during hospitalization

From: Hyponatremia during hospitalization and in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized from heart failure

Variable Non-hyponatremia during hospitalisation (n = 362) Hyponatremia during hospitalization (n = 102) P Value
Age (yrs) 54.2 ± 15.3 52.1 ± 12.9 0.162
Sex (Male) 53.6 % 50.9 % 0.641
Ejection fraction (%) * 39.3 ± 18.4 39.9 ± 20.1 0.846
Ischemia as cause of HF 58.3 % 51.9 % 0.254
Vital signs and symptoms on admission
 SBP 129.4 ± 27.4 117.8 ± 24.1 <0.001
 DBP 83.1 ± 18.2 76.9 ± 16.8 0.002
 Heart rate 94.8 ± 17.6 97.4 ± 18.9 0.212
 Respiratory rate 26.7 ± 5.9 27.6 ± 6.1 0.181
 Orthopnea 69.6 % 71.6 % 0.703
 PND 52.5 % 58.8 % 0.257
 Cough 18.8 % 18.6 % 0.971
 Chest pain 20.7 % 7.8 % 0.003
 Peripheral oedema 61.1 % 72.5 % 0.033
 Ascites 8.8 % 21.6 % <0.001
 Fatigue 21.5 % 50.9 % <0.001
Medical history    
 Hypertension 45.1 % 31.4 % 0.014
 Diabetes mellitus 22.7 % 24.5 % 0.694
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4.1 % 7.8 % 0.128
 Stroke 3.9 % 1.9 % 0.351
 Tuberculosis 4.7 % 7.8 % 0.214
 Asthma 2.2 % 2.9 % 0.509
 Previous hospitalization for cardiac disease 40.9 % 51.9 % 0.046
Concomitant diagnosis    
 Atrial fibrillation 15.5 % 12.7 % 0.495
 Pneumonia 15.7 % 20.6 % 0.248
 Renal failure 17.7 % 33.3 % 0.001
 Cardiac arrhythmia 4.9 % 5.9 % 0.714
 Infectious diseases (other than pneumonia) 4.1 % 5.9 % 0.456
Blood chemistry at admission    
 Sodium (mEq/L) 139.9 ± 4.5 133.1 ± 6.2 <0.001
 Potassium (mEq/L) 4.4 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.9 0.824
 Chloride (mEq/L) 102. 9 ± 7.4 96.2 ± 8.1 <0.001
 Blood glucose (mg/dL) 142.1 ± 73.2 137.1 ± 76.7 0.555
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 50.7 ± 33.7 73.1 ± 50.9 <0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.4 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.4 0.075
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 9.4 ± 5.7 9.0 ± 4.0 0.633
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 158.0 ± 48.3 137.9 ± 43.1 <0.001
 HDL (mg/dL) 35.5 ± 17.9 27.4 ± 12.6 <0.001
 Protein total (g/dL) 6.5 ± 0.9 6.3 ± 1.2 0.097
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.4 ± 0.6 3.2 ± 0.5 <0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.7 ± 2.5 12.8 ± 2.3 0.919
 Erythrocyte (x1012/L) 4.61 ± 2.16 4.61 ± 1.23 0.996
 Hematocrit (%) 39.5 ± 7.0 40.2 ± 6.9 0.544
 Leucocyte (x109/L) 8.3 (6.7–10.5) 8.7 (7.0–12.3) 0.187
 AST (IU/L) 34 (25–55) 40 (28–83) 0.012
 ALT (IU/L) 26 (16–51) 34 (18–88) 0.011