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Table 3 Studies of atrial fibrillation outcomes

From: Atrial fibrillation in the Indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: a systematic scoping review

Author (Year) Publication type Country Indigenous population Calendar period Age range Methods Key findings on Indigenous AF Quality score (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale applied only to Indigenous AF data) Comments
Outcomes in AF patients
Title: Cardiovascular Disease Rates, Outcomes, and Quality of Care in Ontario Métis: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Atzema (2015) [31] Journal article (this study has multiple outcomes) Country: Canada (Ontario only) Design: Retrospective cohort study Age- & sex-adjusted all cause mortality (CI) Métis 16.6 (7.3–25.4) All Ontario 7.8 (7.5–8.1) p = 0.06 NOS (cohort): 7/9 ‘Incidence case’ denominator determined by first emergency department presentation or hospitalisation onlySmall number of Métis subjects
  Population: Métis Outcomes: One-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in incident cases () Age- & sex-adjusted cardiovascular mortality (CI) Métis 10.0 (2.4–17.7)  
  Period: 2006-2011 Sample size: 6 deaths in 56 Métis; 32,387 general Ontarian incident cases All Ontario 4.8 (4.6–5.0) p = 0.19  
  Age: 20+ years    
Title: African Americans have the highest risk of in-hospital mortality with atrial fibrillation related hospitalizations among all racial/ethnic groups: A nationwide analysis
Turagam (2012) [41] Journal research letter Country: US Design: cross-sectional/cohort In-hospital mortality following admission with AF as principal diagnosis: Native Americans vs Whites adjusted HR 0.7 (p = 0.3) NOS (adapted for cross sectional) 8/10 Unlinked data; short follow-up (hospital deaths only)
  Population: Native American Data Source: Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospitalization database   
  Period: 2008 Setting: hospitals   
  Age: uncertain Sample size: 425470 admitted with AF as principal diagnosis   
Title: Initial hospitalisation for atrial fibrillation in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in Western Australia
Katzenellenbogen (2015) [30] Conference abstract later published as a journal article (this study has multiple outcomes) Country: Australia (Western Australia only) Design: Retrospective cohort 1-year mortality: cross-over effect 30-day mortality: Demography-adjusted HR = 1.7 NOS (cohort): 9/9 Hospitalised cases only AF codes not validated No diagnostic tests and therapeutic data
  Population: Aboriginal Data Source: Linked hospital and death records Fully adjusted HR = 0.81 (NS) 1-yr mortality in 30-day survivors: Demography-adjusted HR = 2.9  
  Age: 20–84 years Setting: Western Australian hospital cases Fully adjusted HR = 1.6 Comorbidities impact substantially on attenuation of effect  
  Period: 2000-09 Other: 15-year clearance period   
   Sample size: 37,097 AF cases, 923 Aboriginal; 5,417 mortality events   
AF as an outcome
Title: Race/ethnicity and the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery
Nazeri (2010) [42] Journal article Country: US Design: retrospective cohort Cumulative incidence prior to discharge of new-onset post-operative AF (crude percentages; no statistical inference) Caucasians: 32.4 % Native Americans: 18.8 % NOS (cohort) 7/9 Descriptive study only in relation to Native Americans Very small number of Native Americans insufficient for multivariate analysis
  Pop: Native Americans Data Source: Institutional research database   
  Period: 2000-2008 Setting: Single tertiary hospital   
   Sample size: Total: 5823   
   Native American: 11 (0.2 %)   
  1. NOS Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, US United States, AF atrial fibrillation, HR hazard ratio