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Table 1 Putative effects of depression and salient CHD pathogenetic pathways

From: The mechanisms by which antidepressants may reduce coronary heart disease risk

Pathways, and pathway numbers corresponding to those in Fig. 1 Refs.
a. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ platelet factors-73-↑ hypercoagulability a. [9597]
b. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ NO depletion-57-↑ SMC proliferation b. [95]
c. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ NO depletion-57-↑ vasodilation c. [95]
d. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ hypertension-100-↑ ROS-85-↑inflammatory state d. [95, 98103]
e. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-88-50-↑ TNFα-41-↑ inflammatory state e. [44, 104108]
f. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89- ↑ SMC proliferation f. [95, 99, 101103, 109]
g. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↓ IGF1-↑ SMC proliferation g. [101103, 109, 110]
h. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-72-↑ platelet factors-73-↑ hypercoagulability h. [17, 29, 99, 110117]
i. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-72-14-55-↑ hyperglycaemia i. [110, 118120]
j. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-12-↑ LDL-33-↑ oxLDL-51-↑ hypercholesterolaemia j. [29, 95, 121, 122]
k. 7-26-↑ catecholamines/↓ serotonin/↓ BDNF-44-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ hypertension-100-↑ ROS-85-↑ inflammatory state k. [95, 106108]
l. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-10-↓ HDL-31-↑ hypercholesterolaemia l. [14, 17, 29, 99]
m. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-12-↑ LDL-33-↑ oxLDL-51-↑ hypercholesterolaemia m. [14, 17, 29, 98, 99]
n. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-55-↑ hyperglycaemia n. [14, 17, 29, 99]
o. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ hypertension-100-↑ ROS −85-↑ inflammatory state o. [98100]
p. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-88-50-↑TNFα-41-↑ inflammatory state p. [123]
q. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ SMC proliferation q. [99]
r. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↓ IGF1-↑ SMC proliferation r. [101103, 109]
s. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-69-↑ insulin resistance-72-↑ platelet factors-73-↑ hypercoagulability s. [17, 29, 99, 111117]
t. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-69-↑ insulin resistance-72-↑ vasodilation t. [123]
u. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-38-↑ TNFα-41-↑ P.gingivalis-43-↑ periodontitis-64-↑ platelet factors-73-↑ hypercoagulability u. [17, 29, 99, 111117, 124]
v. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-39-↑ insulin resistance- 72-↓ vasodilation v. [123]
w. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-39-↑ SMC proliferation w. [125]
x. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-72-14-55-↑ hyperinsulinaemia x. [17, 20, 29, 99]
y. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-53-↑ NO depletion-57-↑ SMC proliferation y. [17, 29, 99, 126]
z. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-53-↑ NO depletion-57-↓ vasodilation z. [17, 29, 99, 127]
aa. 7-27-↑ cortisol-48-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ hypertension-100-↑ ROS-85-↑ inflammatory state aa. [17, 29, 98, 99]
  1. ↑ denotes up regulation/increase, ↓ denotes down regulation/decrease, x-y-z indicates pathway connecting x to y to z
  2. FFA free fatty acids, IGF 1 insulin-like growth factor-1, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MAPK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, NO nitric oxide, oxLDL oxidized LDL, P. gingivalis Porphyromonas gingivalis, PI3K phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K:MAPK ratio of PI3K to MAPK, ROS reactive oxygen species, SMC smooth muscle cell, TNFα tumor necrosis factor-α