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Table 1 Differences in baseline characteristics between participants (n, %)

From: Depression increases the onset of cardiovascular disease over and above other determinants in older primary care patients, a cohort study

Category Risk factor MDD Controls Adjusted HR (95 % CI)
Background Age, y, mean (SD) 67.9 (8.7) 67.6 (7.5)  
Gender (male) 44 (30.8) 49 (35.3)  
Living alone** 72 (50.3) 41 (29.7)  
Education (low) 55 (38.5) 62 (44.6)  
Religion (yes) 70 (49.0) 64 (46.0)  
CVD status CVD* 31 (25.6) 19 (14.1)  
Hypertension 54 (44.6) 48 (35.6)  
Hypercholesterolemia 32 (26.4) 31 (23.0)  
Diabetes* 14 (11.6) 5 (3.7)  
Family history of CVD 56 (39.2) 56 (40.3)  
CVD medication** 85 (59.4) 62 (40.6) 2.54 (1.19 to 5.44)
Chron. illnesses, mean (SD)* 3.9 (2.3) 3.1 (2.1)  
Lifestyle Smoking current 32 (22.4) 19 (13.7)  
Baecke, mean (SD)** 5.42 (5.09) 7.86 (5.17)  
Physiology (mean, SD) BMI, kg/m2* 28.17 (5.21) 26.76 (4.16)  
SBP, mmHg 146.2 (18.05) 142.4 (18.56)  
DBP, mmHg 83.62 (9.41) 83.72 (8.17)  
HRV SDNN ln*, ms 1.50 (0.25) 1.57 (0.24)  
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 5.98 (1.15) 6.02 (1.08)  
Fasting glucose, mmol/l 5.64 (1.13) 5.56 (0.96)  
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 3.54 (1.07) 3.74 (0.94)  
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.65 (0.51) 1.60 (0.41)  
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.76 (1.16) 1.55 (0.92)  
IL-6 ln, pg/ml 0.95 (0.63) 0.86 (0.62)  
CRP ln, mg/l 1.02 (1.08) 0.77 (1.08)  
Psychiatry MADRS, mean (SD) ** 19.38 (8.25) 2.73 (3.89)  
HADS-A, mean (SD) ** 9.92 (2.89) 5.98 (2.46)  
Panic disorder** 36 (25.4) 7 (3.2)  
Depression history** 115 (81.0) 63 (45.7)  
Family history depression* 58 (40.6) 39 (28.1)  
  1. *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01