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Table 2 Prevalence and crude odds ratios (COR) of factors associated with hypertension prevalence and awareness, in South Asian Immigrants, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2012 (n = 1,375)

From: Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in male South Asian immigrants in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

   Hypertension    Awareness   
Characteristics All n (%) COR (95 % CI) P n (%) COR (95 % CI) P
Nationality        
India 433 150 (34.6) 1.0   33 (22.0) 1.0  
Pakistan 383 108 (28.2) 0.74 (0.55, 0.99) 0.049 30 (28.3) 1.35 (0.76, 2.39) 0.250
Bangladesh 559 161 (28.8) 0.76 (0.58, 0.99) 0.049 36 (23.1) 1.02 (0.60, 1.76) 0.822
Age group        
18-35 years 810 179 (22.1) 1.0   19 (10.9) 1.0 1.000
36-45 years 307 115 (37.5) 2.11 (1.58, 2.81) 0.000 26 (23.2) 2.45 (1.28, 4.68) 0.007
46+ years 200 111 (55.5) 4.39 (3.18, 6.08) 0.000 51 (46.8) 7.13 (3.88, 13.08) 0.000
Monthly income       
Bottom quartile 371 94 (25.3) 1.0   13 (13.9) 1.0  
Second quartile 290 89 (30.7) 1.30 (0.92, 1.83) 0.13 21 (12.1) 1.96 (0.91, 4.210 0.085
Third quartile 399 132 (33.1) 1.46 (1.06, 1.99) 0.02 33 (25.8) 2.13 (1.05, 4.33) 0.035
Top quartile 315 104 (33.0) 1.45 (1.04, 2.02) 0.03 32 (30.8) 2.73 (1.33, 5.61) 0.006
Education        
No formal schooling 173 35 (20.2) 0.61 (0.36, 1.01 0.06 5 (14.3) 0.68 (0.20, 2.33) 0.548
Primary or middle 473 149 (31.5) 1.09 (0.72, 1.66) 0.653 40 (27.4) 1.15 (0.66, 3.65) 0.310
Secondary or high school 586 192 (32.7) 1.16 (0.77, 1.74) 0.459 46 (24.5) 1.33 (0.57, 3.09 0.499
College or university 139 41 (29.5) 1.0   8 (19.5) 1.0  
Occupation        
Driver 317 94 (29.6) 1.38 (0.94, 2.04) 0.097 29 (30.8) 2.97 (1.30, 6.79) 0.010
Laborer 234 71 (30.3) 1.43 (0.95, 2.16) 0.086 9 (13.0) 1.0  
Construction worker 172 64 (37.2) 1.95 (1.26, 3.00 0.002 11 (17.7) 1.43 (0.55, 3.74) 0.457
Agriculture worker 236 55 (23.3) 1.0 1.0 11 (21.1) 1.79 (0.68, 4.70) 0.238
Salesman 79 26 (32.9) 1.61 (0.92, 2.82) 0.092 9 (34.6) 3.52 (1.21, 10.28) 0.021
Professional, office worker 95 29 (30.5) 1.44 (0.85, 2.45) 0.173 7 (23.3) 2.02 (0.67, 6.08) 0.207
Business/shop keeper 60 24 (40.0) 2.19 (1.21, 3.99) 0.010 7 (29.2) 2.74 (0.89, 8.45) 0.079
Hospitality worker 71 19 (26.8) 1.20 (0.65, 2.20) 0.551 8 (42.1) 4.85 (1.54, 15.29) 0.007
Tailor 70 24 (34.3) 1.72 (0.96, 3.06) 0.067 4 (16.7) 1.33 (0.37, 4.80) 0.660
Other 40 12 (30.0) 1.41 (0.67, 2.96) 0.363 4 (36.4) 3.80 (0.92, 15.67) 0.064
Type of accommodation       
Shared with non-relatives 717 232 (32.4) 1.75 (1.17, 2.62) 0.006 55 (23.9) 1.52 (0.59, 3.84) 0.378
Shared with family 152 44 (28.9) 1.49 (0.89, 2.48) 0.122 14 (31.8) 2.25 (0.76, 6.67) 0.141
Single accommodation 153 60 (39.2) 2.36 (1.44, 3.86) 0.001 16 (28.1) 1.89 (0.66, 5.40) 0.237
Live with sponsor 184 46 (25.0) 1.22 (0.74, 2.01) 0.429 8 (17.8) 1.04 (0.32, 3.35) 0.941
Live in a labor camp 168 36 (21.3) 1.0   6 (17.1) 1.0  
Home country setting        
Rural 932 269 (28.9) 1.0   59 (22.3) 1.0  
Urban or semi-urban 426 149 (34.9) 1.32 (1.01, 1.69) 0.02 40 (27.4) 1.32 (0.82, 2.09) 0.245
Length of stay in UAE       
1 to 5 years 547 137 (25.1) 1.0   9 (6.7) 1.0  
6 to 10 years 257 78 (30.8) 1.32 (0.94, 1.81) 0.11 19 (25.3) 4.75 (2.02, 11.15) 0.000
>10 years 414 178 (43.0) 2.26 (1.71, 2.96) 0.000 71 (40.1) 9.38 (4.47, 19.65) 0.000
Marital status        
Single 412 83 (20.1) 1.0   5 (6.3) 1.0  
Married 963 336 (34.9) 2.12 (1.61, 2.79) 0.000 94 (28.2) 1.82 (2.28, 14.85) 0.000
Body mass index – kg/m [2]       
<25.0 758 170 (22.4) 1.0   28 (16.8) 1.0  
25.0 - 29.9 486 182 (37.4) 2.07 (1.61, 2.66) 0.000 46 (25.7) 1.72 (1.01, 2.91) 0.044
≥30.0 129 66 (51.2) 3.62 (2.46, 5.32) 0.000 24 (36.9) 2.91 (1.52, 5.55) 0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio        
<0.90 cm 503 84 (16.7) 1.0   8 (9.8) 1.0  
≥0.90 cm 872 335 (38.4) 3.11 (2.37, 4.08) 0.000 91 (27.6) 3.52 (1.63, 7.59) 0.001
Waist circumference – cm       
Waist < 94 925 234 (25.3) 1.0   40 (17.4) 1.0  
Waist ≥ 94 450 185 (44.1) 2.06 (1.62, 2.62) 0.000 59 (32.4) 2.28 (1.44, 3.61) 0.000
Smoking ever        
Never 827 254 (30.7) 1.0   50 (20.0) 1.0  
Ever 548 165 (30.1) 0.97 (0.76, 1.22) 0.81 49 (30.2) 1.73 (1.09, 2.73) 0.081
Smokeless tobacco       
  1162 346 (29.8) 1.0   83 (24.5) 1.0  
Ever 150 53 (35.3) 1.29 (0.90, 1.84) 0.17 12 (23.1) 0.92 (0.46, 1.85) 0.826
Drinking alcohol        
Never 1119 302 (26.9) 1.0   82 (27.4) 1.0  
Ever 130 45 (34.6) 1.43 (0.97, 2.10) 0.07 10 (22.2) 0.75 (0.35, 1.59) 0.670
Walk for at least 30 minutes daily        
Yes 1018 267 (26.2) 1.0   65 (25.0) 1.0  
No 314 134 (42.7) 2.09 (1.61, 2.72) 0.002 33 (24.8) 0.99 (0.61, 1.60) 0.463
Family history of hypertension        
No 887 223 (25.1) 1.0   52 (23.5) 1.0  
Yes 249 91 (36.5) 1.71 (1.27, 2.31) 0.000 38 (43.2) 2.47 (1.46, 4.17) 0.001
Known diabetic        
No 1261 358 (28.4) 1.0   66 (18.7) 1.0  
Yes 114 61 (53.5) 2.90 (1.97, 4.28) 0.000 33 (55.0) 5.29 (2.98, 9.41) 0.000