Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the South Asian Immigrants in Abu Dhabi, UAE 2012

From: Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in male South Asian immigrants in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics India (n = 433) Pakistan (n = 383) Bangladesh (n = 559) p
a     
Age-years (mean) 36.3 (35.3, 37.2) 34.8 (33.7, 35.9) 31.7 (31.0, 32.5) 0.000
Age group-years (%)     
18-35 (years) 50.0 (48.7, 51.3) 59.6 (54.4, 64.7) 71.1 (66.3, 75.7) 0.000
36-45 (years) 28.1 (23.5, 32.7) 20.5 (16.4, 24.9) 20.8 (16.7, 25.1)  
46+ (years) 21.9 (17.8, 26.3) 19.9 (15.8, 24.2) 8.1 (5.1, 11.1)  
Education (%)     
None 3.1 (1.6, 5.0) 23.9 (19.6, 28.4) 12.9 (10.2, 15.9) 0.000
Primary or middle 23.3 (19.2, 27.6) 31.4 (26.7, 36.2) 46.0 (41.7, 50.2)  
Secondary or high school 36.9 (32.2, 41.7) 28.3 (23.7, 33.1) 27.6 (23.8, 31.5)  
College or university 36.7 (31.7, 41.5) 16.4 (12.7, 20.4) 13.5 (6.6, 22.3)  
Income – AED (%)     
Bottom quartile 13.5 (10.4, 16.8) 17.2 (7.7, 21.2) 44.2 (13.6, 48.3) 0.000
Second quartile 19.8 (16.2, 23.7) 21.1 (8.6, 25.4) 22.0 (8.9, 25.5)  
Third quartile 39.5 (34.9, 44.1) 28.2 (10.2, 32.8) 21.5 (8.8, 25.0)  
Top quartile 27.2 (23.2, 31.5) 33.4 (11.4, 38.2) 12.3 (6.4, 15.2)  
Immigrated from a rural village (%) 64.3 (59.3, 69.1) 56.7 (51.3, 61.9) 83.2 (79.7, 86.3)  
Married (%) 78.5 (74.1, 82.5) 75.3 (70.5, 79.7) 60.1 (55.7, 64.3)  
Do not live with immediate family (%) 88.6 (85.0, 91.6) 88.4 (84.7, 91.6) 81.0 (77.4, 84.3)  
Type of accommodation (%)     
Shared with non-relatives 51.4 (46.4, 56.3) 41.1 (36.1, 46.2) 58.6 (54.5, 62.8) 0.000
Shared with family 10.5 (7.6, 13.7) 15.0 (11.8, 19.3) 7.8 (5.6, 10.2)  
Single accommodation 13.3 (10.1, 16.8) 11.1 (8.1, 14.5) 8.9 (6.6, 11.5)  
Live with sponsor 13.3 (10.1, 16.8) 16.7 (13.0, 20.7) 12.2 (9.5, 15.1)  
Live in a labor camp 11.5 (8.5, 14.8) 16.1 (12.5, 20.1) 12.4 (9.7, 15.3)  
Years in UAE (%)     
Up to 1 year 11.2 (8.1, 14.6) 10.5 (7.4, 14.1) 10.3 (7.6, 13.3) 0.000
2 to 5 years 31.3 (26.6, 36.2) 30.5 (25.5, 35.7) 38.6 (34.1, 43.2)  
6 to 10 years 21.2 (17.1, 25.6) 17.1 (13.1, 21.4) 23.1 (19.3, 27.1)  
>10 years 36.3 (31.4, 41.3) 41.9 (36.5, 47.4) 28.0 (23.9, 32.2)  
b     
Occupation (%)     
Driver 21.5 (17.5, 25.7) 33.9 (29.1, 38.8) 19.2 (16.0, 22.7) 0.000
Laborer 14.1 (10.8, 17.2) 12.8 (9.5,16.4) 20.3 (17.0, 23.8)  
Construction worker 12.6 (9.5, 16.1) 8.3 (5.7, 11.4) 13.1 (10.4, 16.1)  
Agriculture worker 8.2 (5.6,11.1) 25.0 (20.7, 29.6) 20.5 (17.2, 24.1)  
Salesman 12.6 (9.5, 16.1) 3.1 (1.6, 5.1) 3.3 (2.2, 5.4)  
Professional, office worker 10.8 (7.9, 14.1) 6.7 (4.4, 9.5) 3.6 (2.2, 5.4)  
Business shop keeper 5.4 (3.4, 7.8) 4.2 (2.4, 6.5) 4.0 (2.5, 5.8)  
Hospitality worker (cook, waiter) 8.2 (5.7, 11.1) 0.8 (0.5, 11.0) 6.5 (4.6, 8.8)  
Tailor 3.6 (1.9, 5.7) 1.9 (0.7, 3.5) 6.8 (4.8, 9.1)  
Other 3.1 (1.6, 5.0) 3.3 (1.7, 5.4) 2.7 (1.5, 4.3)  
Family history of hypertension (%) 14.8 (11.4, 18.8) 15.0 (11.5, 19.1) 23.2 (19.6, 27.1) 0.001
Family history of diabetes (%) 15.9 (12.4, 19.9) 8.1 (5.5, 11.4) 8.9 (6.6. 11.7) 0.000
Body mass index – kg/m [2] (mean) 31.5 (21.1, 41.9) 26.6 (25.1, 27.9) 26.2 (24.2, 28.2) 0.000
Waist-to-hip ratio (mean) 0.93 (0.92, 0.94) 0.93 (0.92, 0.94) 0.92 (0.90, 0.93) 0.033
Waist circumference – cm (mean) 89.5 (88.5, 90.5) 92.9 (90.8, 93.5) 85.6 (84.7, 86.6) 0.000
Smoking (%) 34.3 (29.6, 39.3) 35.8 (30.1, 41.0) 49.1 (44.7, 53.4) 0.000
Smokeless tobacco (%) 5.2 (3.1, 7.9) 11.1 (8.0, 14.9) 15.6 (12.6, 19.1) 0.000
Exposure to second hand tobacco (%) 40.7 (35.8, 45.8) 49.7 (44.4, 55.0) 46.7 (42.4, 51.1) 0.000
Drinking alcohol – ever (%) 20.1 (16.1, 24.4) 3.1 (1.6, 5.5) 7.8 (5.6, 10.4) 0.000
Walk 7 days a week (%) 81.1 (76.7, 84.9) 85.9 (81.9, 89.4) 77.2 (73.3, 80.8) 0.006
Reported vigorous physical activity (%) 17.1 (13.5, 20.6) 18.8 (14.8, 22.7) 18.6 (15.4, 21.8) 0.774
Reported moderate physical activity (%) 20.5 (16.7, 24.4) 18.9 (14.8, 22.7) 37.0 (33.1, 41.0) 0.000
BP measurement – never (%) 57.3 (51.9, 62.4) 62.7 (57.2, 67.9) 68.8 (64.0, 73.2) 0.004
Hypertension (%) 34.5 (30.1, 39.1) 28.2 (23.6, 32.7) 28.8 (25.0, 32.6) 0.073
Physician diagnosed diabetes (%) 10.8 (7.9, 13.8) 6.5 (4.0, 9.0) 6.8 (4.7, 8.9) 0.030
HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % 11.6 (1.6, 21.6) 4.3 (−0.4, 13.4) 9.1 (1.2, 19.4) 0.618
Systolic Blood Pressure – mmHg (mean) 132.6 (130.9, 134.4) 129.2 (127.4, 131.0) 129.1 (127.7, 130.5) 0.003
Diastolic Blood Pressure – mmHg (mean) 79.6 (78.4, 80.8) 75.9 (74.7, 77.2) 76.7 (75.6, 77.7) 0.000