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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics of whole study population and divided into group A (CAC score < 10), group B (CAC score 10–99), group C (CAC score 100–399), group D (CAC score ≥ 400)

From: The role of coronary artery calcification score in clinical practice

  All A B C D
N 598 304 135 89 70
Male* 338 (57%) 156 (51%) 80 (59%) 60 (67%) 42 (60%)
Age (years)* 55 ± 11 50 ± 11 56 ± 10 62 ± 10 63 ± 10
CAC score* 13 (0–158) 0 (0–1) 44 (24–65) 224 (148–295) 693 (511–1284)
Risk factors      
   Hypertension* 231 (57%) 138 (45%) 74 (55%) 60 (67%) 55 (79%)
   Diabetes 47 (12%) 24 (8%) 20 (15%) 11 (12%) 8 (11%)
   Hypercholesterolemia* 164 (41%) 100 (33%) 61 (45%) 40 (45%) 41 (59%)
   Smoking 117 (29%) 109 (36%) 51 (38%) 39 (44%) 25 (36%)
   Family history of CVD 209 (52%) 159 (52%) 67 (50%) 39 (44%) 42 (60%)
10-year risk of CHD (%)* 6 (3–10) 4 (2–8) 6 (4–10) 10 (6–12) 8 (5–12)
CVD history      
   Atrial fibrillation 25 (7%) 12 (4%) 2 (2%) 5 (6%) 6 (9%)
   Cerebrovascular disease 16 (4%) 13 (4%) 9 (7%) 6 (7%) 2 (3%)
   Other 36 (10%) 17 (6%) 12 (9%) 10 (11%) 9 (13%)
Ischemia test 531 (89%) 263 (87%) 122 (90%) 85 (96%) 61 (87%)
   Negative 362 (61%) 183 (60%) 87 (64%) 58 (65%) 34 (49%)
   Non-conclusive 95 (16%) 55 (18%) 18 (13%) 11 (12%) 11 (16%)
   Positive* 74 (12%) 25 (8%) 17 (13%) 16 (18%) 16 (23%)
CAG* 146 (24%) 26 (9%) 30 (22%) 30 (34%) 60 (86%)
  1. Values are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range). CAC = coronary artery calcification, CAG = coronary angiography, CHD = coronary heart disease, CVD = cardiovascular disease. * Significant difference between groups, p < 0.05. Framingham Risk Score was used to determine 10-year risk of CHD. Other: cardiovascular history includes valvular diseases, arrhythmias, peripheral arterial disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pulmonary embolism.