Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the Study Participants by Ankle Blood Pressure (ABP) and Exercise Blood Pressure (EBP) Group.

From: Ankle blood pressure as a predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality

  Normal ABP Normal EBP Elevated ABP and Normal EBP Elevated ABP and Elevated EBP Normal ABP and Elevated EBP Unclassified  
  n = 2203 n = 791 n = 509 n = 222 n = 133 p
Age (years) 47 (10) 55 (9) 54 (7) 51 (9) 59 (10) 0.001*
Male/female 1419/820 447/358 435/87 205/21 105/30 0.001†
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.4(4) 26.8 (4) 27.5 (4) 26.9 (4) 25.7 (4) 0.001*
Syst. BP (mmHg) 124 (14) 144 (17) 152 (17) 135 (16) 137 (20) 0.001*
Diast. BP (mmHg) 82 (9) 90 (10) 94 (10) 85 (9) 85 (11) 0.001*
Pulse/min 73 (13) 75 (13) 75 (13) 74 (13) 75 (14) 0.001*
SBP80 (women) 172 (20) 192 (15) 229 (11) 233 (13) - 0.001*
SBP150 (men) 186 (18) 199 (14) 236 (16) 231 (12) - 0.001*
SBPMax 193 203 240 236 178.3 0.001*
Ankle blood pressure (mmHg) 150 (17) 194 (14) 198 (18) 157 (14) 141 (37) 0.001*
ABI 1.21 (0.38) 1.31 (0.14) 1.27 (0.17) 1.16 (0.14) 1.03 (0.27) 0.001*
ABI < 0.97 n (%) 66 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 22 (1) 39 (29) 0.001†
Self-reported abnormal total cholesterol n (%) 925 (42) 340 (43) 234 (46) 122 (55) 74 (56) 0.001†
Self-reported abnormal glucose n (%) 132 (6) 95 (12) 66 (13) 27 (12) 35 (26) 0.001†
Pos. family history n (%) 793 (36) 324 (41) 188 (37) 95 (43) 69 (529 0.005†
Pack-years of smoking 9 (11) 9 (12) 13 (14) 14 (13) 20 (16) 0.001*
Current smokers n (%) 308 (14) 71 (9) 71 (14) 36 (16) 51 (38) 0.001†
METs 8.4 (3) 6.6 (2) 7.4 (2) 7.9 (1.9) 4.6 (1.5) 0.001*
Cardiovascular medication n (%) 22 (1) 285 (36) 178 (35) 33 (15) 60 (45) 0.001†
Diagnosed ischemic heart disease n (%) 88 (4) 142 (18) 46 (9) 13 (6) 72 (54) 0.001†
Deaths during follow-up n (%) 88 (4) 119 (15) 56 (11) 22 (10) 60 (45) 0.001†
Cardiovascular deaths during follow-up n (%) 20 (0.9) 40 (5) 20 (4) 9 (4) 23 (17) 0.001†
  1. Mean values (S.D.) or proportions (%), * ANOVA, † χ2 test
  2. SBP80 = systolic blood pressure at the exercise level of 80 Watts
  3. SBP150 = systolic blood pressure at the exercise level of 150 Watts
  4. SBPMax = maximum systolic blood pressure during exercise
  5. ABI = Ankle Brachial Index
  6. METs = Exercise capacity measured in metabolic equivalents