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Table 3 Clinical Outcomes after Enhanced External Counterpulsation of Non-Smokers Undergoing Enhanced External Counterpulsation

From: Passive tobacco exposure may impair symptomatic improvement in patients with chronic angina undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation

Variables No SHS Exposure (n = 918) SHS Exposure (n = 108) p-value
Death (%) 0.4 1.9 0.12
Myocardial infarction (%) 1.4 1.9 0.67
Unstable angina (%) 2.6 8.3 0.0014
Heart failure exacerbation (%) 1.4 2.8 0.28
Coronary bypass surgery (%) 0.3 0.0 0.55
Percutaneous coronary intervention (%) 1.1 1.9 0.37
MACE (Death/MI/CABG/PCI) (%) 2.8 5.6 0.12
Anginal status (%)    0.044
   No angina 16.3 17.9  
   Class I 24.2 16.0  
   Class II 37.0 31.1  
   Class III 17.3 23.6  
   Class IV 5.3 11.3  
Angina decreased ≥ 1 class 79.2 67.9 0.0082
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD or percentage