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Table 4 Synergistic effect of ACE I/D DD genotype and classical risk factors in CAD patients and controls

From: RAS gene polymorphisms, classical risk factors and the advent of coronary artery disease in the Portuguese population

Classical risk factor ACE I/D DD Whole population Males Females ≤ 45 subgroup
   CAD Control OR(95%CI) CAD Control OR(95%CI) CAD Control OR(95%CI) CAD Control OR(95%CI)
Hypertension              
0 0 63 256 1 54 143 1 9 113 1 24 132 1
0 1 43 99 1.76(1.10–2.84)* 39 43 2.40(1.36–4.25)** 4 56 0.90(0.22–3.38)NS 11 55 1.10(0.47–2.55)NS
1 0 112 110 4.14(2.78–6.17)*** 83 82 2.68(1.69–4.25)*** 29 28 13.00(5.16–33.64)*** 12 20 3.30(1.32–8.25)*
1 1 80 45 7.22(4.46–11,73)*** 59 27 5.79(3.22–10.46)*** 21 18 14.65(5.33–41.40)*** 17 4 23.38(6.59–90.92)***
   SI = 1.59; SIM = 0.99; RERI = 2.32;
AP = 0.32
SI = 1.56; SIM = 0.90; RERI = 1.71;
AP = 0.30
SI = 1.15; SIM = 1.25; RERI = 1.75;
AP = 0.12
SI = 9.32; SIM = 6.44; RERI = 19.98;
AP = 0.85
Smoking              
0 0 112 269 1 76 153 1 36 116 1 11 106 1
0 1 70 104 1.62(1.09–2.39)* 48 47 2.06(1.23–3.45)* 22 57 1.24(0.64–2.41)NS 9 37 2.34(0.81–6.72)NS
1 0 63 97 1.56(1.04–2.34)* 61 72 1.71(1.07–2.71)* 2 25 0.26(0.04–1.21)NS 25 46 5.24(2.24–12.46)***
1 1 53 40 3.18(1.95–5.21)*** 50 23 4.38(2.40–8.02)*** 3 17 0.57(0.12–2.23)NS 19 22 8.32(3.21–21.96)***
   SI = 1.85; SIM = 1.26; RERI = 1.00;
AP = 0.31
SI = 1.91; SIM = 1.24; RERI = 1.61;
AP = 0.37
SI = 0.86; SIM = 1.77; RERI = 0.07;
AP = 0.13
SI = 1.31; SIM = 0.68; RERI = 1.74;
AP = 0.21
Obesity              
0 0 126 295 1 99 180 1 27 115 1 30 135 1
0 1 88 122 1.69(1.18–2.42)** 72 59 2.22(1.42–3.46)** 16 63 1.08(0.51–2.27)NS 22 55 1.80(0.91–3.55)NS
1 0 49 71 1.62(1.04–2.51)* 38 45 1.54(0.91–2.60)NS 11 26 1.80(0.73–4.39)NS 6 17 1.59(0.51–4.77)NS
1 1 35 22 3.72(2.03–6.87)*** 26 11 4.30(1.93–9.71)*** 9 11 3.48(1.18–10.24)* 6 4 6.75(1.56–30.78)*
   SI = 2.07; SIM = 1.36; RERI = 1.41;
AP = 0.38
SI = 1.88; SIM = 1.26; RERI = 1.54;
AP = 0.36
SI = 2.82; SIM = 1.79; RERI = 1.60;
AP = 0.46
SI = 4.13; SIM = 2.36; RERI = 4.36;
AP = 0.65
Diabetes              
0 0 123 342 1 101 208 1 22 134 1 31 151 1
0 1 89 134 1.85(1.30–2.63)** 75 61 2.53(1.64–3.91)*** 14 73 1.17(0.53–2.56)NS 25 59 2.06(1.08–3.95)*
1 0 52 24 6.02(3.46–10.55)*** 36 17 4.36(2.25–8.54)*** 16 7 13.92(4.69–42.75)*** 5 1 24.35(2.61–570.81)**
1 1 34 10 9.45(4.33–21.12)*** 23 9 5.26(2.22–12.78)*** 11 1 67.00(8.19–1458.07)*** 3 0 --
   SI = 1.44; SIM = 0.85; RERI = 2.58;
AP = 0.27
SI = 0.87; SIM = 0.47; RERI = -0.63;
AP = -0.12
SI = 5.04; SIM = 4.11; RERI = 52.91;
AP = 0.79
--   
Dyslipidaemia              
0 0 52 327 1 47 197 1 5 130 1 16 144 1
0 1 35 123 1.79(1.08–2.96)* 31 57 2.28(1.28–4.05)** 4 66 1.58(0.34–7.05)NS 6 58 0.93(0.31–2.70)NS
1 0 123 39 19.83(12.16–32.47)*** 90 28 13.47(7.68–23.77)*** 33 11 78.00(22.86–287.79)*** 20 8 22.50(7.80–67.21)***
1 1 88 21 26.35(14.58–48.04)*** 67 13 21.60(10.54–45.02)*** 21 8 68.25(18.00–282.98)*** 22 1 198.00(25.16–4210.95)***
   SI = 1.29; SIM = 0.74; RERI = 5.73;
AP = 0.22
SI = 1.50; SIM = 0.70; RERI = 6.85;
AP = 0.32
SI = 0.87; SIM = 0.55; RERI = -10.33;
AP = -0.15
SI = 9.19; SIM = 9.46; RERI = 175.57;
AP = 0.89
  1. SI, Rothman's synergy index for interaction; RERI, relative excess risk due to interaction; AP, proportion of disease attributable to interaction; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0001, NS not significant P > 0.05.