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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants without prevalent coronary heart disease by ABI category, the ARIC study, 1987–1989*

From: The association of the ankle-brachial index with incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study, 1987–2001

Characteristic ≤ 0.80 (N = 124) (0.80–0.90] (N = 259) (0.90–1.00] (N = 1173) (1.00–1.10] (N = 3178) (1.10–1.20] (N = 4370) (1.20–1.30] (N = 3087) >1.30 (N = 1397) P value
Male, % 50.0 23.6 22.7 32.8 44.6 54.1 59.1 <0.001
African American, % 44.4 28.6 26.7 27.3 26.8 25.0 22.1 <0.001
Age, y 57.3 (5.2) 54.9 (5.9) 53.6 (5.8) 53.6 (5.7) 53.9 (5.7) 54.2 (5.8) 55.0 (5.6) <0.001
Height, cm 167.6 (9.0) 164.9 (8.3) 164.4 (8.2) 166.4 (8.7) 168.8 (9.2) 170.3 (9.4) 171.1 (9.5) <0.001
Smoking status, %         
   Current smoker 62.9 43.6 32.3 27.1 24.8 22.7 20.8 <0.001
   Former smoker 24.2 22.4 27.1 29.3 32.3 35.1 32.5  
   Never smoker 12.9 34.0 40.6 43.6 42.9 42.2 46.7  
Hypertension, % 64.5 41.3 37.2 35.6 32.9 29.2 29.7 <0.001
Diabetes, % 24.2 13.5 10.2 8.6 8.4 7.5 8.6 <0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.22 (0.39) 1.35 (0.45) 1.38 (0.44) 1.40 (0.45) 1.36 (0.45) 1.32 (0.43) 1.30 (0.42) <0.001
LDL-C, mmol/L 3.99 (1.06) 3.67 (1.17) 3.58 (1.03) 3.56 (1.04) 3.52 (1.01) 3.51 (0.98) 3.53 (0.98) 0.017
Carotid IMT, mm§ 0.94 (0.32) 0.79 (0.23) 0.73 (0.20) 0.72 (0.19) 0.71 (0.17) 0.71 (0.16) 0.72 (0.17) 0.47
Rose intermittent claudication, % 11.4 3.1 1.2 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.4 <0.001
  1. *Values are mean (SD) unless otherwise noted. ARIC indicates Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; HDL-C, HDL-cholesterol; LDL-C, LDL-cholesterol; ABI, ankle-brachial index; IMT, intima-medial thickness.
  2. For the test of no rank correlation.