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Table 2 Top ten food items on the FFQ that contribute to the intake of choline and betaine among 14,430 participants in the ARIC Study.

From: Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Choline
Ranking Food group % of nutrient Quantity per serving (mg)
1 Read meat – side dish 11.4 163.5
2 Eggs 11.1 110.4
3 Red meat – main dish 10.4 130.1
4 Low fat milk 8.3 40.7
5 Chicken without skin 8.3 111.6
6 Chicken or turkey (with skin) 4.0 92.8
7 Coffee 3.5 6.2
8 Fish (cod, perch, catfish) 3.3 94.8
9 Potatoes, mashed or baked 3.3 32.9
10 Whole milk 2.6 34.6
Betaine
Ranking Food group % of nutrient Quantity per serving (mg)
1 Dark bread 24.9 34.4
2 White bread 18.1 25.5
3 Spinach 10.4 72.9
4 Cold breakfast cereals 8.2 21.6
5 Pasta 4.7 34.9
6 Cookies 3.6 11.9
7 Coffee 3.1 1.9
8 Hamburgers 2.5 13.8
9 Biscuits or cornbread 2.4 10.9
10 Donut 2.2 25.3