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Table 5 Association of former smoking with baseline and progression of overall IMT and IMT components compared to never smokers*

From: Smoking status and common carotid artery intima-medial thickness among middle-aged men and women based on ultrasound measurement: a cohort study

  Baseline Progression
  Former smoker Never smoker Difference p value Former smoker Never smoker Difference P value
Women (N = 143)         
Intima-medial thickness(μm) 678.4 ± 13.4 672.9 ± 10.8 5.5 ± 16.2 0.74 10.0 ± 2.8 10.2 ± 2.1 -0.2 ± 3.3 0.94
Echogenic layer (μm) 314.6 ± 8.3 317.6 ± 6.8 -3.0 ± 10.1 0.76 13.6 ± 3.3 7.0 ± 2.6 6.5 ± 4.0 0.10
Echolucent layer (μm) 367.4 ± 14.6 361.3 ± 11.8 6.1 ± 17.7 0.73 -3.5 ± 3.8 1.7 ± 2.9 -5.2 ± 4.5 0.24
Men (N = 155)         
Intima-medial thickness(μm) 707.9 ± 9.7 677.2 ± 9.2 30.7 ± 13.3 0.02 11.6 ± 2.2 12.0 ± 2.0 0.4 ± 3.0 0.89
Echogenic layer (μm) 341.8 ± 9.0 341.7 ± 8.6 0.08 ± 12.4 0.99 7.9 ± 3.5 6.8 ± 3.3 1.1 ± 4.8 0.82
Echolucent layer (μm) 372.5 ± 10.6 344.8 ± 10.2 27.7 ± 14.7 0.06 1.1 ± 3.7 1.7 ± 3.5 0.60 ± 5.1 0.90
  1. * Data are presented as least-square mean ± standard error. The parameter estimates were obtained from individual growth models, adjusted for age, body height, and race/ethnicity.