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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study subjects (N = 413)

From: Smoking status and common carotid artery intima-medial thickness among middle-aged men and women based on ultrasound measurement: a cohort study

Variables Men (n = 231) Women (n = 182) p for differencea
  No. (%) of subjects   
Ethnicity    .12
   Hispanic 65 (38.1) 48 (26.4)  
   Non-Hispanic white 135 (58.5) 99 (54.4)  
   Black 11 (4.8) 15 (8.2)  
   Asian 10 (4.3) 18 (9.9)  
   Other 10 (4.3) 2 (1.1)  
Smoking status    .005
   Current smokers 76 (32.9) 39 (21.4)  
   Former smokers 67 (29.0) 50 (27.4)  
   Never smokers 88 (38.1) 93 (51.2)  
  Mean ± SD   
Age (yr) 49.3 ± 4.5 51.9 ± 4.5 <.0001
Body height (m) 1.76 ± .07 1.61 ± .07 <.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.0 ± 4.9 28.0 ± 6.3 .002
Mean IMTb(μm) 708.8 ± 96.3 682.1 ± 88.0 <.0001
Echogenic layer 364.4 ± 98.1 331.0 ± 67.8 <0.0001
Echogenic layer (% IMT) 44.5 ± 7.4 42.6 ± 7.1 0.0093
Echolucent layer 362.9 ± 83.9 367.9 ± 91.5 0.78
Echolucent layer (% IMT) 50.0 ± 9.3 52.3 ± 9.4 0.01
  1. a p values for categorical variables were based on x2 analysis; p values for continuous variables were based on ANOVA.
  2. b IMT, carotid artery intima-media thickness