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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials

From: Antibiotics for the primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever: a meta-analysis

Study ID Randomisation and concealment of treatment allocation Participants Intervention Effect size % Randomised included in analysis
Bennike, 1951 Quasi-randomised; Inadequate concealment of treatment 349 admitted to hospital with ordinary acute tonsillitis, plegmonous tonsillitis or ulcerative tonsillitis 1. Penicillin: IM, 300,000 units/day for 6 days (adults)
2. Control – symptomatic treatment
Not Estimable 88%
Brink, 1951 Quasi-randomised; No concealment of treatment 475 males, aged 17–21, admitted to U.S. military hospital with respiratory symptoms or fever with exudate on tonsils or pharyngeal mucosa 1. Procaine penicillin G: IM 300,000 units/day for 4 days
2. Aureomycin: avg. 2 g/day orally for 4 days
3. Control – no treatment
RR = 0.29 [0.06,1.46] Unknown
Brock, 1953 Randomised; No concealment of treatment 349 males admitted to U.S. military hospital with exudative pharyngitis and laboratory-confirmed GAS infection 1. Procaine penicillin G: IM 600,000 units/day for 3 days
2. Control: IM saline placebo, day 1 and day 5
RR = 0.11 [0.00,2.71] Unknown
Brumfitt, 1957 Quasi-randomised; No concealment of treatment 121 males, aged 18–21, admitted to U.S. military hospital with sore throat, pyrexia and no clinical evidence of more generalized disease of which sore throat may have been coincident feature 1. Combination of procaine penicillin G: IM 600,000 units/day for 4 days and crystalline penicillin: IM 200,000 units/day for 4 days
2. Control – symptomatic treatment
Not estimable Unknown
Chamovitz, 1954 Quasi-randomised; Unknown whether treatment allocation concealed 241 males admitted to U.S. military hospital with exudative tonsillitis or pharyngitis 1. DBED penicillin: IM 1,200,000 units
2. Control – IM placebo
RR = 0.17 [0.01,3.41] Unknown
Denny, 1950 Quasi-randomised; No concealment of treatment 1602 males admitted to U.S. military hospital with respiratory symptoms and observed exudate on the tonsils or pharyngeal wall 1. Penicillin G: IM 200,000 units/day for 3 days of 300,000 units/day for 4 days
2. Control: symptomatic treatment
RR = 0.12 [0.03,0.50] 81.8%
Denny, 1953 Randomised; Unknown whether treatment allocation concealed 207 males admitted to U.S. military hospital with suspected streptococcal infection based on presence of exudate on tonsils or pharynx and total leukocyte count exceeding 10,000 1. Crystalline procaine penicillin: IM 600,000 units/day for 5 days
2. Crystalline aureomycin: avg. 2 g/day for 5 days
3. Crystalline terramycin: avg. 2 g/day for 5 days
4. Control: oral lactose placebo for 5 days
RR = 0.64 [0.06,6.92] Unknown
Houser, 1953 Quasi-randomised; No concealment of treatment 2044 males, ages 17–21, admitted to U.S. military hospital with exudative lesions on their tonsils or pharynx 1. Aureomycin: avg. 2 g/day for avg. 5 days
2. Control: no specific treatment
RR = 0.63 [0.34,1.17] 88%
Siegel, 1961 Quasi-randomised; No concealment of treatment 1213 children, aged 3–16, with uncomplicated acute upper-respiratory tract disease and laboratory-confirmed GAS infection 1. Benzathine penicillin G: IM 600,000 units
2. Control: symptomatic treatment
RR = 0.20 [0.01,4.14] 95%
Wannamaker, 1951 Quasi-randomised; No concealment of treatment 2340 males, aged 17–20, admitted to U.S. military hospital with respiratory symptoms and exudative lesions on the tonsils or oropharynx, or oral temp. > 100°F 1. Procaine penicillin G: IM various dosages (1,200,000 over 4 days; 600,000 units over 3 days; 600,000 single dose)
2. Control: no specific treatment
RR = 0.21 [0.09,0.47] 83.3%