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Table 2 Conventional and tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography parameters of healthy males

From: Increased myocardial dysfunction, dyssynchrony, and epicardial fat across the lifespan in healthy males

  Young Middle Older
  < 40 years old 40-65 years old > 65 years old
  (n = 15) (n = 15) (n = 15)
LV M-Mode    
HR (beats.min-1) 56.8 (8.1) 59.1 (6.0) 60.6 (14.1)
LAD diameter (mm) 35.7 (4.6) 35.6 (3.9) 36.3 (5.5)
LVED diameter (mm) 52.9 (3.7) 50.0 (3.5) 50.3 (3.5)
LVES diameter (mm) 34.9 (4.0) 32.1 (5.3) 33.7 (5.6)
IVSD diameter (mm) 10.5 (0.5) 11.5 (1.4) 11.8 (1.2)*
PWD diameter (mm) 10.6 (0.9) 11.3 (1.3) 11.1 (1.1)
RWT (mm) 0.40 (0.1) 0.45 (0.1)* 0.46 (0.1)*
LV mass (g) 221.6 (36.3) 216.5 (38.4) 229.4 (42.5)
LV mass index (g.m-2.7) 44.9 (6.4) 45.7 (7.7) 52.9 (9.3)*#
LV ejection fraction (%) 63.5 (5.2) 64.2 (6.5) 63.1 (6.9)
LV Pulsed-Doppler    
E velocity (cm.s-1) 75.1 (13.1) 67.5 (9.3) 62.6 (14.7)*
A velocity (cm.s-1) 40.4 (6.6) 55.9 (11.7)* 66.8 (25.8)***
E/A 1.9 (0.5) 1.3 (0.4)*** 1.0 (0.3)***
E deceleration time (ms) 163.9 (22.4) 168.1 (16.5) 191.9 (38.8)*
IVRT (ms) 94.3 (11.7) 110.8 (16.4)* 115.6 (25.0)*
LV Pulsed-TDI   
Em (cm.s-1) 14.2 (2.2) 10.3 (2.8)*** 8.4 (2.2)***
Am (cm.s-1) 6.6 (0.8) 8.0 (1.7) 9.0 (2.4)*
Sm (cm.s-1) 8.0 (0.7) 7.4 (1.5) 7.5 (1.3)
E/Em 4.9 (0.8) 6.1 (1.7) 7.4 (2.7)*
Right ventricle    
EAT (mm) 0.25 (0.09) 0.39 (0.10)* 0.57 (0.24)***#
RV Sm (cm.s-1) 13.6 (1.7) 11.2 (1.5)* 11.7 (2.2)*
TAPSE (mm) 22.8 (1.8) 20.6 (1.4) 21.6 (3.4)
  1. Data are means (standard deviations). LV: Left ventricular, HR: Heart rate, LAD: Left atrial diastolic, LVED: Left ventricular end diastolic, LVES: Left ventricular end systolic, IVSD: Interventricular septum diastolic, PWD: Posterior wall diastolic, RWT: Relative wall thickness, IVRT: Isovolumic relaxation time, EAT: Epicardial adipose tissue, RV: Right ventricle, TAPSE: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. *: p < 0.05 vs. Young; ***: p < 0.001 vs. Young; #: p < 0.05 vs. Middle; ###: p < 0.001 vs. Middle.