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Table 3 Tissue Doppler velocity and longitudinal deformation measurements in electronic cigarette users (ECIG, n = 40) and smokers (SM, n = 36), before and after device and cigarette use respectively*

From: Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (electronic cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes

Parameter Before use After use Change P-valuea P-valueb
Sm (cm/s)      
ECIG 9.7 ± 1.6 9.9 ± 1.6 0.2 ± 0.7 0.171 0.613
SM 9.7 ± 1.4 9.7 ± 1.5 -0.8 ± 1.1 0.571  
P-valuec 0.896 0.723    
Em (cm/s)      
ECIG 12.7 ± 1.9 12.9 ± 2.1 0.2 ± 0.7 0.095 < 0.001
SM 12.8 ± 2.1 11.9 ± 1.5 -0.7 ± 1.4 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.892 0.032    
Am (cm/s)      
ECIG 9.7 ± 1.7 9.9 ± 1.6 0.2 ± 0.8 0.122 0.441
SM 9.3 ± 1.2 9.4 ± 1.3 0.1 ± 0.6 0.801  
P-valuec 0.212 0.099    
Em/Am      
ECIG 1.34 ± 0.29 1.33 ± 0.28 -0.01 ± 0.13 0.540 0.011
SM 1.40 ± 0.28 1.30 ± 0.24 -0.08 ± 0.13 0.004  
P-valuec 0.408 0.655    
E/Em      
ECIG 5.60 ± 1.04 5.61 ± 1.11 0.01 ± 0.47 0.869 0.052
SM 5.83 ± 0.95 6.10 ± 0.98 0.29 ± 0.74 0.021  
P-valuec 0.311 0.044    
MPIt      
ECIG 0.48 ± 0.08 0.47 ± 0.09 -0.01 ± 0.04 0.080 < 0.001
SM 0.49 ± 0.06 0.52 ± 0.07 0.03 ± 0.05 0.004  
P-valuec 0.654 0.019    
GS (%)      
ECIG -21.1 ± 1.9 -21.5 ± 1.6 -0.4 ± 1.2 0.059 0.087
SM -21.0 ± 2.6 -20.7 ± 3.1 0.2 ± 1.7 0.441  
P-valuec 0.769 0.192    
SRs (s -1 )      
ECIG -1.13 ± 0.10 -1.14 ± 0.11 -0.01 ± 0.07 0.362 0.613
SM -1.08 ± 0.13 -1.10 ± 0.13 -0.2 ± 0.1 0.150  
P-valuec 0.059 0.115    
SRe (s -1 )      
ECIG 1.47 ± 0.25 1.49 ± 0.23 0.01 ± 0.08 0.347 < 0.001
SM 1.43 ± 0.25 1.35 ± 0.24 -0.08 ± 0.12 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.493 0.022    
SRa (s -1 )      
ECIG 0.88 ± 0.20 0.89 ± 0.18 0.01 ± 0.08 0.462 0.441
SM 0.86 ± 0.14 0.88 ± 0.14 0.03 ± 0.09 0.111  
P-valuec 0.536 0.796    
  1. *Longitudinal deformation measurements were performed in 37 electronic cigarette users and 34 smokers.
  2. Sm, mitral annulus systolic velocity; Em, mitral annulus early diastolic velocity; Am, mitral annulus late diastolic velocity; MPIt, myocardial performance index estimated by tissue Doppler echocardiography; GS, global longitudinal strain; SRs, peak systolic strain rate; SRe, peak early diastolic strain rate; SRa, peak late diastolic strain rate.
  3. aP-value for time effect.
  4. bRepeated measurements ANOVA. Effects reported are significant differences between the two groups in the degree of change in each particular variable.
  5. cP-value for group effect.