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Table 4 Adjusted differences in inpatient outcomes by comorbidity profile (n = 192,327 * )

From: Comorbidity profiles and inpatient outcomes during hospitalization for heart failure: an analysis of the U.S. Nationwide inpatient sample

 

Inpatient death

Length-of-stay

Inpatient cost

Comorbidity profile

RR (95% CI)

p-value

IRR (95% CI)

p-value

Relative cost (95% CI)

p-value

Lifestyle

1.023 (0.945-1.108)

0.573

1.149 (1.135-1.163)

<0.001

111.9% (110.0%-113.9%)

<0.001

Renal

1.302 (1.223-1.387)

<0.001

1.269 (1.254-1.284)

<0.001

123.5% (121.5%-125.4%)

<0.001

Neurovascular

1.445 (1.280-1.631)

<0.001

1.336 (1.291-1.381)

<0.001

136.7% (131.3%-142.3%)

<0.001

  1. Note: All estimates are adjusted for age, gender, race, median income of the patient’s zip code, primary healthcare payer, and weekend vs. weekday admissions, as well as hospital bed size (small, medium, or large) control (government or private, government/nonfederal (public), private/non-profit, private/investor owned, private), location (rural, urban), region (Northeast, Midwest, South, West) and teaching status (non-teaching, teaching).
  2. *Estimates generated using discharge weights (population estimate n = 976,664).
  3. Relative to the "common" comorbidity profile.
  4. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval calculated from weighted standard errors; IRR, incident rate ratio; RR, relative risk.