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Table 5 Subgroup analysis: omega-3 PUFA and pain-free walking distance

From: The impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on the incidence of cardiovascular events and complications in peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup No. of trials Total patients in cohort Effect estimate (95% CI) I 2
Omega-3 PUFA Control
Effect of Intervention Duration on PFWD      
 Less than 6 months (Gans 1990 [37]) 1 16 16 MD, -31.00 (-74.34, 12.34) NE
 6 months or longer (Leng 1998 [34], Carrero 2005 [35], Carrero 2006 [36]) 3 79 72 MD, 172.98 (-0.82, 346.77) 80%
Effect of Omega-3 PUFA Dose on PFWD      
 More than 0.3 g/day (Gans 1990 [37]) 1 16 16 MD, -31.00 (-74.34, 12.34) NE
 Less than or equal to 0.3 g/day (Leng 1998 [34], Carrero 2005 [36], Carrero 2006 [37]) 3 79 72 MD, 172.98 (-0.82, 346.77) 80%
Effect of Omega-3 PUFA Type on PFWD      
 EPA + DHA + ALA (Carrero 2005 [35], Carrero 2006 [36]) 2 40 36 MD, 260.33 (160.05, 360.60) 0%
 EPA + DHA (Gans 1990 [37]) 1 16 16 MD, -31.00 (-74.34, 12.34) NE
 EPA (Leng 1998 [34]) 1 39 36 MD, 10.00 (-109.07, 129.07) NE
  1. ALA, alpha-linolenic acid; CI, confidence intervals; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; MD, mean difference; PFWD, pain-free walking distance; I 2, I-squared.