Schematic diagram of distal end side-to-side anastomoses and end-to-side anastomoses. A. Schematic diagram of distal end side-to-side anastomoses. i. The GSV was side-to-side anastomosed to the target coronary artery by Prolene 8–0 or 9–0 sutures. ii. The extra GSV segment was subsequently cut starting from the toe of the anastomosis at 45-degree angle toward the anastomosis. iii. The distal end of GSV was sealed with Prolene 7–0. B. Schematic diagram of end-to-side anastomoses.