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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Association of epicardial fat with left ventricular diastolic function in subjects with metabolic syndrome: assessment using 2-dimensional echocardiography

Parameter Total n = 1456 Subjects with metabolic syndrome n = 346 Subjects without metabolic syndrome n = 1140 p-value
Male, n (%) 995 (67.0%) 267 (77.2%) 728 (63.9%) <0.001
Age, yrs 53 ± 9 55 ± 10 53 ± 9 <0.001
SBP, mmHg 117 ± 13 125 ± 13 115 ± 12 <0.001
DBP, mmHg 77 ± 10 82 ± 10 75 ± 9 <0.001
PP, mmHg 40 ± 9 43 ± 10 40 ± 9 <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 24 ± 3 26 ± 3 23 ± 3 <0.001
WC, cm 87 ± 8 93 ± 6 85 ± 7 <0.001
Glucose, mg/dL 101 ± 21 116 ± 32 97 ± 14 <0.001
T. cholesterol, mg/dL 196 ± 33 198 ± 38 195 ± 32 0.157
Triglyceride, mg/dL 120 ± 81 188 ± 115 100 ± 52 <0.001
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 51 ± 11 45 ± 9 53 ± 11 <0.001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 124 ± 29 126 ± 31 123 ± 29 0.101
hsCRP, mg/dL 0.15 ± 0.39 0.17 ± 0.32 0.14 ± 0.41 0.200
HbA1C, % 5.7 ± 0.7 6.1 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 0.5 <0.001
Echocardiography     
EAT, mm 2.7 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.8 <0.001
LVIDd, mm 49 ± 4 50 ± 3 48 ± 4 <0.001
LVIDs, mm 28 ± 3 29 ± 3 28 ± 3 <0.001
LVEF,% 66 ± 6 66 ± 6 66 ± 6 0.526
LA, mm 40 ± 5 38 ± 5 35 ± 5 <0.001
E 0.59 ± 0.18 0.58 ± 0.27 0.60 ± 0.14 0.104
A 0.60 ± 0.25 0.65 ± 0.43 0.59 ± 0.16 0.004
DT 191 ± 60 198 ± 65 189 ± 58 0.014
E/A 1.0 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.4 <0.001
E/E’ 9.0 ± 2.9 10.0 ± 3.3 8.7 ± 2.7 <0.001
E/E’ ≥ 15 57 (3.8%) 27 (7.8%) 30 (2.6%) <0.001
  1. BMI; body mass index, DT; deceleration time, DBP; diastolic blood pressure, EAT; epicardial adipose tissue, HbA1C; glycated hemoglobin, HDL; high-density lipoprotein, hsCRP; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LA; left atrium size, LVIDd; left ventricular diastolic dimension, LVEF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVIDs; left ventricular systolic dimension, LDL; low-density lipoprotein, PP; pulse pressure, SBP; systolic blood pressure, T.chol; total cholesterol, WC; waist circumference.