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Table 3 Prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis according to the level of blood pressure variabilit

From: Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a marker of cardiac diastolic function and carotid atherosclerosis

  Blood pressure variability
  Low variability Middle variability High variability
     Crude OR Adjusted ORa   Crude OR Adjusted ORa
  n (%) OR n (%) (95% CI) (95% CI)a n (%) (95% CI) (95% CI)a
Diastolic dysfunction
  E/e’ <15 43 (89.6)   41 (85.4)    34 (70.8)   
  E/e’ ≥15 5 (10.4) 1 (reference) 7 (14.6) 1.47 (0.43–5.00) 1.33 (0.36–4.92) 14 (29.2) 3.54 (1.16-10.81) 2.71 (0.78–9.38)
Carotid atherosclerosis
  Max-IMT ≤1.5 mm 30 (62.5)   29 (60.4)    15 (31.2)   
  Max-IMT >1.5 mm 18 (37.5) 1 (reference) 19 (39.6) 1.09 (0.48–2.48) 1.47 (0.53–4.08) 33 (68.8) 3.67 (1.58-8.54) 4.93 (1.75–13.91)
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; E/e’, early ventricular filling velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity; IMT, intima–media thickness.
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, baseline systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive drugs, and history of cardiovascular disease.